Presentation on theme: "The Ocean Water and Its Creatures"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Ocean Water and Its Creatures Objective 5.0: Describe the layers of the oceanic hydrosphere, including the pelagic zone, benthic zone, and intertidal zone.
2 Marine Ecosystems: are ecosystems based upon salty water A. Cover ¾ of Earth’s surface & contain 97% of Earth’s water supplyB. Three groups of marine life, that range from the largest animals, live in the ocean & along with billions of microscopic creatures.1. Plankton Nekton 3. BenthosH.O.T.S.: Where do you think most marine animals would be located—where is the water warm and filled with light? Where would you want to live if you lived in the ocean—where the water is cold, dark, & filled with pressure OR where the pressure is less, and the water is warm & sunny?
3 Marine life1. Plankton: are organisms that float at or near the ocean’s surface; there are 2 groups of these; comes from the Greek word planktos, meaning “wandering”Phytoplankton (plankton): microscopic photosynthetic organisms that float at or near the surface of the water; they use the sun’s energy to make food just like plants doZooplankton: small, often microscopic, organisms that eat phytoplankton
5 Marine life continued2. Nekton: the free-swimming organisms such as dolphins, sharks, fishFYI: Blue whale is the largest; 20 people could stand on its tongue & people could crawl through their arteriesH.O.T.S. : How big do you think a blue whale’s heart is?3. Benthos: organisms that live on or in the ocean floor.a. They live in mud, sand, & rock.b. Examples: crabs, sea stars (starfish),worms, coral, sponges, seaweed, &clams.
8 C. Wide range of habitats in the ocean 1. dark, cold, high-pressure2. great depths to warm sandy beaches3. icy polar waters to rocky coastlines4. oceans and seas occur all overEarth & contain many ecosystems
9 D. Abiotic factors that shape marine ecosystems: 1. temperature2. amount of sunlight3. distance from land4. depth of water (distance below the surface of the water)5. sunny water: water absorbs light & can go down 200 m; this is where you find phytoplankton; they produce up to 95% of all oxygen available in Earth’s atmosphereH.O.T.S.: If all marine life were to die, how would you be affected? How would others be affected?
10 E. The Benthic Environment: 1. The ocean is divided into zones based upon depth & where different types ofbenthos live.2. The zones are grouped into one major marine environment—the benthicenvironment.
11 The Zones of the Benthic Environment 1. Intertidal zone: area where ocean meets landa. it is located b/w the low-tide & high-tide limits, so it is above water part of the day (when tide is out & often battered by waves during this time)b. mud flats, rocky shores, & sandy beaches are found herec. animals & plants in the mud flats: periwinkle snails, herons, & sea grassesd. animals of the rocky shores: sea stars, sea anemonese. animals of the sandy beaches: clams, crabs, conchs, snailsf. animals here either hold on with strong root-like systems or have shells to protect them from the waves
13 2. Sublittoral zonea. begins where the intertidal zone ends, at the low-tide limit, & extends to the edge of the continental shelfb. temperature, water pressure, & sunlight remain constant here so animals here do not have to deal with the changes that the intertidal zone doesc. extends 200m below sea level, below the surfaced. most plants & animals such coral stay in the upper 100 m where sunlight reaches the ocean floor
14 Sublittoral zone: coral reefs a. found in sunny, tropical areasb. live in close relationship w/single-celled algaec. forms from skeletons of corals over thousands of yearsd. home to many speciese. dying due to global warmingf. slow growth rate (about the width of a dime in height/yr)g. the tropical rain forests of the ocean because of their diversity
16 3. Bathyl zonea. extends from the edge of the continental shelf to the abyssal plainb. depth: 200 m to 4,000 m below sea levelc. no sunlight here so no plantsd. animals here: sponges, sea stars, octopi, brachiopods, echinoids
18 4. Abyssal zone: from the Greek word meaning "no bottom", and refers to the ancient belief that the open ocean was bottomlessa. on the abyssal plain at a maximum depth of 6,000 mb. no plants & few animals here: crabs, sponges, tube worms, & sea cucumbers1. tube worms live around thermal vents, hot-water cracks in the ocean floor that release heat & chemicals from inside the Earth2. the water coming from these vents can be above 80°C3. worms that live here are dubbed chemosynthetic because they use the chemicals coming from the vents for their food sourcec. little is known about the abyssal zone because it is so deep &dark
19 Abyssal Zone Organisms Upper left: Christmas tree worms; To left: Sea cucumbers; Above top: anglerfish; Above: tubeworms from hydrothermal vents;
20 5. Hadal zone a. The deepest benthic zone b. made of the floor of ocean trenches & any organisms therec. less known about it than abyssal zoned. organisms there: sponge, worms, clam
21 Hadal Zone OrganismsDeep water squid, deep sea medusa, sea spider, sea pig, and sea basket.
22 G. The Pelagic Environment 1. it is the entire volume of water in the ocean & the marine organisms that liveabove the ocean floor2. 2 major zones in the pelagic zonea. Neritic zoneb. Oceanic zone
23 3. Neritic Zone: the water that covers the continental shelf a. less than 200 m deep & much sunlight hereb. warm, clear, sunny, & shallow zone contains the largest amt of marine lifec. animals & plants here: seaweed, plankton, sea turtles, coral reefs, sponges, fish, dolphins1. brown seaweed is used for making Japanese soup, kombu2. red seaweed used for sushi3. some seaweeds are also used for adding taste & texture to ice cream
24 SeaweedKombu, red seaweed, and seaweed used in ice cream & toothpaste
25 4. Oceanic Zone: the water that covers the entire sea floor except the continental shelf a. deeper parts have cold water & great water pressureb. organisms are more spread out & many eat dead things that fallc. many unusual animals found here have adapted to pressure & darkness, & include giant squids, whales, fish that glow, anglerfish
26 Oceanic Zone small squid in the genus Abraliopsis Chaenophryne longicepsctenophore Bathyctenahydromedusa Aequorea victoria