Presentation on theme: "Aim: Did the Spanish colonization of the Americas have a more positive or negative impact? Period 4: 1450 – 1750 Do Now: You and your brother or sister."— Presentation transcript:
1 Aim: Did the Spanish colonization of the Americas have a more positive or negative impact? Period 4: 1450 – 1750 Do Now: You and your brother or sister share a room. You get into a fight and draw a line down the middle of the room; each of you get exactly one half. Will this solution work?
2 I Treaty of Tordesillas After Columbus’s “discovery” of the New World, European nations competed for land to colonize.To prevent conflict between Spain and Portugal for overseas colonies, in 1494 Pope Alexander VI made the Treaty of Tordesillas; an imaginary line running north and south in Atlantic Ocean. Spain could claim all land to the west of the line. Portugal could claim all land east of the line.
4 II The Spanish Conquistadors A) Conquistadors were Spanish nobles who came to the New World seeking wealth, land, and status.Hernan Cortes
5 The Spanish Conquistadors Continued… “Born in Spain, conquistador Hernán Cortés ( ) first served as a soldier in an expedition of Cuba led by Diego Velázquez in He ignored orders and traveled to Mexico with about 500 men and 11 ships in 1519, setting his sights on overthrowing ruler Montezuma II in the Aztec capital of Tenochitilán. It is thought that Cortés’ arrival coincided with an Aztec prophecy about a white-skinned god arriving from the east, which would explain why Montezuma welcomed Cortés and gave him lavish gifts. The Aztecs eventually drove the Spanish from Tenochitilán, but Cortés returned to defeat the natives and take the city in Cortés became allies with some of the native peoples he encountered, but with others he used deadly force to conquer Mexico. He marched to Tenochitilán, the Aztec capital and home to ruler Montezuma II. Cortés took Montezuma hostage. Cortés left the city after learning that Spanish troops were coming to arrest him for disobeying orders. He returned to Tenochitilán to find a rebellion in progress. The Aztecs eventually drove the Spanish from the city, but
6 The Spanish Conquistadors Continued… Cortés returned again to defeat them and take the city in A new settlement, Mexico City, was built on the ruins... Cortés secured control over Mexico, inflicting great cruelty on the indigenous population. Western diseases such as smallpox also caused huge fatalities. In 1523 Cortés was named governor and captain general of New Spain. In 1528, amid Spanish fears that he was becoming too powerful, he was forced to return to Spain.”Who was Malinche “Dona Marina”?In 1519, a young native woman named Malinche was captured by Spanish conquistadors. She learned Spanish, was renamed Doña Marina., and served Cortés as a translator. How much impact do you think her translations helped the Spanish?
7 Hernan Cortes, 2nd Letter to Charles V, 1520 … This great city… is situated in this salt lake…There are four entrances to the city, all of which are formed by artificial causeways... The city is as large as Seville or Cordova [cities in Spain]; its streets… are very wide and straight; some of these… are navigated by canoes… This city has many public squares, in which are situated the markets... There is one square twice as large as that of the city of Salamanca… where are daily assembled more than sixty thousand souls, engaged in buying and selling; and where are found all kinds of merchandise that the world affords… …This great city contains a large number of temples... In these chapels are the images of idols… the principal ones, in which the people have greatest faith and confidence, I precipitated from their pedestals, and cast them down the steps of the temple, purifying the chapels in which they had stood, as they were all polluted with human blood... In the place of these I put images of Our Lady and the Saints…
8 Anonymous Aztec Source "The 'stags‘ [horses] came forward, carrying soldiers on their backs… Foam from their muzzles drips onto the ground in fat drops… When they run, they make a loud noise, as if stones were raining on the earth. Then the earth is pitted and cracked open wherever their hooves have touched it.” – Anonymous, AztecThe remains of a massacre of Aztecs by the Spanish, Zultepec, Mexico
9 The Spanish Conquistadors Continued… B) Francisco Pizarro
10 Pizarro Continued…“In the 5 years before the Spanish arrival, a war of succession gripped the empire. In 1532, Atahualpa's army defeated the forces of his half-brother Huascar in a battle near Cuzco. Atahualpa was consolidating his rule when Pizarro and his 180 soldiers appeared. Francisco Pizarro was [Spanish born]. He became a soldier and in 1502 went to Hispaniola… Hearing legends of the great wealth of an Indian civilization in South America, Pizarro formed an alliance with fellow conquistador Diego de Almagro in 1524 and sailed down the west coast of South America from Panama. The first expedition only penetrated as far as present-day Ecuador, but a second reached to present-day Peru. There they heard firsthand accounts of the Inca empire. Returning to Panama, Pizarro planned an expedition of conquest, but the Spanish governor refused to back the scheme. In 1528, Pizarro sailed back to Spain to ask the support of Emperor Charles V. Cortes had recently brought the emperor great wealth through his conquest of the Aztecs, and Charles approved Pizarro’s plan... In 1530, Pizarro returned to Panama. In 1531, he sailed down to Peru. He led his army up the Andes Mountains and on November 15, 1532, reached the Inca town of Cajamarca, where Atahualpa [the Incan emperor] was enjoying the hot springs in preparation for his march on Cuzco, the capital of his brother’s kingdom. Pizarro invited Atahualpa to attend a feast in his honor, and the emperor accepted. With an army of 30,000 men at his disposal, Atahualpa thought he had nothing to fear from the bearded white stranger and his 180 men. Pizarro, however, planned an ambush…
11 Pizarro Continued…On November 16, Atahualpa arrived at the meeting place with an escort of several thousand men, all apparently unarmed. Pizarro sent out a priest to exhort the emperor to accept Christianity and the rule of Emperor Charles V. Atahualpa refused, [allegedly] flinging a Bible handed to him to the ground in disgust. Pizarro immediately ordered an attack… thousands of Incas were slaughtered, and the emperor was captured. Atahualpa offered to fill a room with treasure as ransom for his release, and Pizarro accepted. 24 tons of gold and silver were brought to the Spanish from throughout the Inca empire. Although Atahualpa had provided the richest ransom in the history of the world, Pizarro put him on trial for plotting to overthrow the Spanish for having his half-brother Huascar murdered. A Spanish tribunal convicted Atahualpa. On August 29, 1533, the emperor was tied to a stake and offered the choice of being burned alive or strangled if he converted to Christianity. In the hope of preserving his body for mummification, Atahualpa chose the latter, and an iron collar was tightened around his neck until he died. With Spanish reinforcements that had arrived earlier that year, Pizarro then marched on Cuzco, and the Inca capital fell without a struggle in November ” history.com
12 Primary Source: The Conquest of the Inca …The Governor [Pizarro] said that he had not come to make war on the Indians, but that our lord the Emperor, who was lord of the whole world, had ordered him to come that he might see the land, and let Atahualpa know the things of our faith, in case he should wish to become a Christian. The Governor also told him that that land and all other lands belonged to the Emperor, and that he must acknowledge him as his lord. He replied that he was content, and, observing that the Christians had collected some gold, Atahualpa said to the Governor that they need not take such care of it, as if there was so little; for that he could give them 10,000 plates, and that he could fill the room in which he was up to a white line, which was the height of a man and a half from the floor. The room was 17 or 18 feet wide and 35 feet long. He said that he could do this in two months. From Hernando Pizarro (brother of Francisco Pizarro) “Conquest of the Indians”, Reports on the Discovery of Peru, Clements R. Markham, tr. and ed. London: Hakluyt Society, 1872
13 III The Spanish Colonies Spain divided their American colonies into 5 provinces, each ruled by a viceroy (governor).B) Jesuits (Catholic missionaries) forced the Natives to convert to Catholicism, and often destroyed anything related to their traditional culture.New Spain began the encomienda system: conquistadors were legally allowed to demand labor and/or payment from the natives. Native laborers were called peons.Mission San Jose in San Antonio, Texas built 1720
16 The Spanish Colonies Continued… D) Not everyone approved of the encomienda system. Bartolome de Las Casas, a priest, wrote a letter to the King of Spain condemning it. In response, in 1542 Spain passed the New Laws of the Indies banning enslavement and abuse. Unfortunately it was impossible to enforce.“…The Spaniards have shown not the slightest consideration for these people, treating them… not as brute animals - indeed, I would to God they had done and had shown them the consideration they afford their animals - so much as piles of dung in the middle of the road…” Bartolome de Las Casas
17 IV A New SocietyThe Spanish conquistadors created a new society in the Americas, with a strict class system.The Spanish were more willing to intermarry with natives or Africans than other Europeans. However, their children automatically were born into a lower class.
18 HW QuestionsBased on the primary sources, what was Cortes’ impression of Aztec society? What was the Aztec impression of the Spanish? *Use evidence from the documents.How did Cortes defeat the Aztecs?How did Pizarro defeat the Inca? Do you think his treatment of Atahualpa was excessive? *Use evidence from the document “Conquest of the Inca”.Did Bartolome de Las Casas make a difference by condemning the encomienda system? Explain.Describe the class system that evolved in the Spanish colonies. Did it make sense for the time? Explain.