2S + Have/Has + past Participle Present => some kind of link to the present timePerfect => some link to the past time
3Recent events => recently, lately, in the last few years There have been a lot of protests among teachers recentlyThe economic crisis has hit almost everybody latelyTechnology has transformed learning methods in the last few years
42. Indefinite past (recent) => just, already, yet I have come to repair my carThe train has already left.Have you read this book yet?They have just had lunch: they can’t be hungry again!Where have you been? – I’ve been away for some days
5It hasn’t stopped raining. We can’t go for a picnic! 3. ResultIt hasn’t stopped raining. We can’t go for a picnic!They have painted their house grey. It looks awful.
64. Experiences => in my life, ever, never, before, up to now, up till now, so far Have you ever been to London?Yes, I’ve been there a few times(When did you go?)
75. Period of time including past and present =>today, this week, this month… She has bought a lot of new clothes this monthI have had three cups of coffee this morningYou have worked hard today. Let’s have a break.
86. Duration of state (be, have, know, opinion, perception, feeling…) => how long, for, since How long have you been here?We have known each other for a few yearsThey have had that car since last December.
9Compare… Simple past I met Susan two minutes ago I went to London last weekThey got married in 2010Present PerfectI have just met SusanI have been to London twiceThey have been married for two years
10Talking about duration Duration of state => Present perfect simpleI have been here for two hoursI have wanted to move to this country all my life.Duration of action => Present Perfect ContinuousI have been waiting for two hoursNB He hasn’t worked here for a long time, as he retired in 2001.
11Present Perfect Continuous S + Have/has BEEN +V-ing (Gerund) Duration of actionHe’s been talking for hoursResult of prolonged recent activityYou’re sweating! - I’ve been playing tennis.Long recent actionsHe’s been playing on the Playstation all afternoon.NB No continuous in negative sentences:I haven’t played tennis for three years.
12? Has he been working here for long? “da molto”+ He has been working here for a long time /for long? Has he been working here for long?- He hasn’t worked here for a long time: he retired in (false duration )He hasn’t been working here for long: He started three months ago. (False negative)
13Personal/ Impersonal forms Aspetto da due ore= I’ve been waiting for two hoursHa la moto nuova da due giorni= He has had a new motorbike for two daysNon ci vediamo da tre mesi= We haven’t met for 3 monthsSono due ore che aspetto= ****Sono due giorni che ha la moto nuova…= It’s two days since he bought his new motorbikeSono tre mesi che non ci vediamo= It’s three months since we last met
14Compare… Italian E’ arrivato da dieci minuti E’ morto da due anni EnglishHe arrived ten minutes agoHe died two years ago