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Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium extraction from Pb16Li.

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Presentation on theme: "Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium extraction from Pb16Li."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium extraction from Pb16Li and He: EU experience and proposals I. Ricapito, ENEA CR Brasimone, FPN-FISING

2 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 OBJECTIVE To summarise the EU experience on tritium extraction from Pb16Li and He for DEMO and Power Plant, presenting at the same time the proposals to ITER for TBM tritium processing systems. Moreover possible fields of collaboration are indicated. Tritium extraction from Pb-16Li Tritium extraction from He (TRPS; CPS) Proposals for EU TBMs T-systems TES/TRPS CPS Possible developments OUTLINE

3 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 GAS LIQUID CONTACTORS V GETTERS BUBBLE COLUMN-PERMEATOR (SiC-SiC f ) spray columns bubble columns packed columns plate columns Tritium Extraction from Pb-16Li Different technologies have been proposed and studied in EU

4 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from Pb-16Li Most of the experimental activities on GL contactors were carried out on Melodie loop MELODIE LOOP: PFD

5 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from Pb-16Li 800 mm height, 54 mm diameter, 673 K Bubble columns: experimental results on Melodie loop Results from Melodie loop on GL contactors

6 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from Pb-16Li 800 mm height, 54 mm diameter, packing area: 750 m 2 /m 3, T:673 K Results from Melodie loop on GL contactors Packed columns: experimental results on Melodie loop

7 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from Pb16Li G-L contactors, experimental results: summary disappointing results were obtained by bubble columns because of the small G-L interface area: particularly, coalescence of gas bubble, already at low gas flow-rate, was claimed to be the main reason of the low efficiency maximum extraction efficiency was nearly 0.3, achieved with packed columns (0.8 m in height) the effect of hydrogen addition to the purge gas on the extraction efficiency was not studied L/G molar ratio was not optimised

8 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from Pb16Li TES: V Getters V was selected because of the high Sieverts constant for tritium and good compatibility with Pb-16Li A deuterium gettering rate constant in the range mol m -2 s -1 mbar -1/2 was experimentally determined, increasing with the temperature because of the increasing deuterium diffusivity in the LM boundary layer (controlling step in the mass transfer) the system is more compact than G-L contactors for a given extraction efficiency a cyclic operation is intrinsically necessary (two beds in parallel)

9 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from Pb16Li TES: bubble column- permeator High extraction efficiency is claimed to be achievable with a very compact system, but experimental confirmation is necessary tritium is recovered by two channels in parallel: - a tritium flow from LM to ascending bubbles - tritium permeation through 2D- SiC f /SiC with a sweep He flow recovering permeated Q 2 or by vacuum Pb-16Li inlet Pb-16Li outlet He He +Q 2

10 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from Pb16Li column operative temperature: K; internal diameter of the column:12.8 cm; column height: cm specific surface of the filler:350 m 2 /m 3 mass flow rate of Pb-16Li:G kg/s; Segmented packed column Ongoing activities on TRIEX loop at ENEA CR Brasimone Aims: - study and optimisation of GL contactors (first phase) - study and optimisation of alternative technologies (integrated bubble column- permeator) in the ambit of international collaboration

11 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from He purge (TRPS) TRPS is the process downstream a GL based TES TRPS feed stream depends on the GL contactor design specification SG CPS P ISS TES Q2Q2 Pb-16Li H2H2 TRPS He+Q 2 + imp. Q2Q2 WGS impurities He Q2Q2 HCS to stack to fuelling H 2 O, H 2

12 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from He purge (TRPS) Tritium Removal from Purge Gas: TRPS VPSA (Vacuum Pressure Swing Adsorption) TSA (Thermal Swing Adsorption) PdAg Permeator battery Candidate Processes

13 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from He purge (TRPS) Process steps a)Feed pressurisation (all valves closed except V1) b)Adsorption at 77 K and 1-2 MPa (all valves closed except V1, V3) c)Co-current blow-down (all valves closed except V2, V4) d)H 2 addition (all valves closed except V6) e)Co-current evacuation (all valves closed except V2, V5) Q 2 to ISS H2H2 He+Q 2 pure He to TES Adsorption column V1 V6 V3 V2 V4 V5 VP To Imp. Processing VPSA process

14 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from He purge (TRPS) Alternative to VPSA is a cryogenic TSA process. For this application TSA is operated at 77 K in adsorption phase, while the regeneration of the adsorbent beds takes place under counter-current He stream at RT or under vacuum, depending on the bed dimensions. Recovered Q 2, concentrated in the He regeneration stream, is then processed by Q 2 permeators (Pd-Ag) TSA process

15 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from He purge (TRPS) Pd-Ag Permeators (solution proposed for DEMO) In the last reactor-permeator HT partial pressure in the shell side is virtually zero by oxygen addition

16 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from He purge (TRPS) Considerations on TRPS TSA is more technologically mature than VPSA, especially when operated at cryogenic temperature, because of the simplicity of the regeneration phase in TSA tritium inventory is higher than in VPSA: in VPSA configuration, the adsorbent beds are much more compact than in TSA Pd-Ag permeators require large surface area and pumping power because of the low differential Q 2 partial pressure (driving force)

17 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from He purge (CPS) About CPS… CPS is the most critical tritium system in HCLL blanket (DEMO or Power Plant) because of: - large feed flow-rate to be processed: in the worst conditions (PRF=1, low LM flow-rate) it exceeds 10 % of the total coolant flow-rate, which is unacceptable - relatively small Q 2 concentration in the feed stream - presence of Q 2 O and impurities at very low partial pressure (range of Pa)

18 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from He purge (CPS) LM flow-rate (kg/s) PRF TES efficiency80%80%60% CPS efficiency95%95%90% T_perm. rate (g/d) Average T conc. in LM (mol m -3 )2.3x x x10 -2 CPS feed flow-rate (Nm 3 /h) 2.1x x x10 6 Fraction of the coolant flow-rate2.7%1.1%2.1% Possible Working Points

19 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Tritium Extraction from He purge (CPS) OUT Q2OQ2O impurities to WGDS oxidizer (Cu 2 O-CuO) K ADSORBERS 2 He RHE He + Q 2 + Q 2 O + imp. IN CT H 2 O + H 2 CPS: possible configuration for DEMO/Power Plant (possibly to be tested in ITER)

20 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Each TBM will have a Tritium Extraction System (TES) to extract the small amount of tritium generated Each TBM will have a Coolant Purification System (CPS) for the extraction of tritium permeated into coolant Processing of tritium within the Tritium Plant could be carried out, alternatively, through: the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System with the subsequent tritium recovery by the Isotope Separation System or the Vent Detritiation System with subsequent tritium removal / recovery by Water Detritiation System and, in series, Isotope Separation System General Statements Proposals for EU TBMs T-systems

21 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 TBM ISS CPS TES TRPS He purge gas HCS to SDS TEP Q2Q2 WDSA/VDS Integration of TES/CPS in the ITER Fuel Cycle Proposals for EU TBMs T-systems

22 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 For the EU TBMs (HCLL and HCPB), the tritium extraction from He purge could be accomplished by two diferent systems for the low duty and high duty DT phase, respectively In view of ITER Low duty : isolated pulses, low amount of Q 2 to be extracted High duty : sequence of standard pulses (back to back pulse series) or long pulses Proposals for EU TBMs T-systems

23 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 TES in the low-duty DT phase (isolated standard pulses) For the low duty DT phase, a simple Tritium Measurement System (TMS) could be used as TES. TMS (FZK concept) is based on a Zn reducing reactor, followed by a U getter bed it has to be equipped by suitable tritium accounting system (on line or in the tritium building) has to be placed close to the TBM (port cell) requires a space approximately 2.3x1.3x1.5 m (LxWxH) for both HCPB and HCLL TBMs Proposals for EU TBMs T-systems

24 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Proposals for EU TBMs T-systems EU TBMs: gas stream to be processed by TES/TRPS HCPB-TBM HCLL-TBM

25 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 TES/TRPS For the high duty DT phase (back to back pulse series and long pulses), different alternatives could be envisaged. One of them is here proposed which is, in principle: - able to recover Q 2 with a good efficiency (90%) and in a wide range; - able to distinguish between HTO and HT generated in the breeder; - DEMO relevant A candidate process consists, essentially, of two in series TSA systems, the first one operated at RT in adsorption phase for Q 2 O removal and the second one at LN 2 temperature for Q 2 removal. In this process the main components are: - a cooler to cool down the He stream from the TBM outlet (450°C) up to RT - a TSA for Q 2 O removal operated at RT in adsorption phase (for HCPB-TBM) - a pre-cooler to cool down the dry He stream close to LN 2 temperature - a TSA for Q 2 removal operated at LN temperature in adsorption phase - a heater to bring the pure He stream to RT - a blower to circulate the He stream into HCPB-TBM Proposals for EU TBMs T-systems

26 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 TES/TRPS Properties of the Q 2 O-TSA and Q 2 -TSA Analytical instrumentation consists of: - n. 7 ionization chambers, located in different points of the circuit. Their measurement range is 1E3÷1E6 Bq/ml - n. 3 H 2 detectors, with a range of 1E-3÷1E0 % in He - n. 2 hygrometers, located in the regeneration loop of Q 2 O-TSA; measurement range -60÷+10 °C (d.p.) -n. 1 gas-chromatograph, with a measurement range of the impurities as 1E-1÷1E2 vppm Proposals for EU TBMs T-systems

27 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Proposals for EU TBMs T-systems EU TBMs: gas stream to be processed by CPS

28 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 CPS /1 The proposed CPS for HCPB-TBM is a three stage process, derived from the DEMO conceptual design: 1) oxidation of Q 2 and to Q 2 O and CO to CO 2 by means of an oxidising reactor (Cu 2 O-CuO) operated at 280 °C; 2) removal of Q 2 O by a room temperature PTSA (Pressure Temperature Swing Adsorption); 3) removal of the impurities by a cryogenic PTSA Proposals for EU TBMs T-systems

29 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 CPS /2 Analytical instrumentation consists of: - n. 4 ionization chambers, operated in the range 1E2÷1E4 Bq/ml - n. 3 hygrometers, with a measure range -80÷0 °C (d.p.) - n. 1 gas-chromatograph with detectable range of impurities 1E- 1÷1E2 vppm Size : 4.5x1.8x2.8 m (LxWxH) close to HCS compressor (TWCS vault) Proposals for EU TBMs T-systems

30 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Although many experiments were done in the past years on Melodie loop at CEA, experimental and modelling activities on the optimisation of tritium extraction systems from LLE need to be continued. An extensive experimental campaign is foreseen in TRIEX loop on GL contactors, particularly for packed columns, with the aim to optimise them with respect to different operating parameters: G/L, H 2 content in the stripping gas, hydrodynamics. TRIEX loop is available to test other tritium extraction technologies for their study and optimisation (e.g.: permeators and coupled bubble columns/permeator) Possible developments /1 Tritium Extraction from PbLi

31 Fusione, Tecnologie e Presidio Nucleare Sezione Ingegneria Sperimentale IEA Workshop on T/Pb16Li Idaho Falls, 11-12/06/2007 Technologies of tritium extraction from He have been identified for both tritium extraction from the purge gas (TRPS) and coolant purification systems (CPS) but no related experimental campaigns have been carried out so far. Adsorption technologies are potentially attractive for such applications but experiments on lab scale adsorption multicomponent equilibria on different microporous materials under relevant pressure, temperature and gas composition ; adsorption kinetics and on pilot plants appear necessary taking into account the demanding performance and the very unusual feed stream properties. M odelling of the system is the next step activity, useful also to refine the sizing of TES/TRPS and CPS for ITER Possible developments /2 Tritium Extraction from He


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