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A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Lincei emblem, Rome, Biblioteca dell'Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei e Corsiniana.

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Presentation on theme: "A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Lincei emblem, Rome, Biblioteca dell'Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei e Corsiniana."— Presentation transcript:

1 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Lincei emblem, Rome, Biblioteca dell'Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei e Corsiniana

2 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI The foundation The foundation of the Academy of the Academy T he Accademia dei Lincei was founded in Rome on 17 August 1603 by Prince Federico Cesi and three other young scholars: Johannes van Heeck, Francesco Stelluti and Count Anastasio De Filiis. The arms and the name Lyncei arose from their love of science and the desire to see into the secrets of nature with a perception as acute as that of the lynx. Pietro Fachetti, Portrait of Federico Cesi, Rome, Palazzo Corsini, Sala delle Scienze Fisiche H ISTORY

3 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Sapientiae Cupidi, Vatican City, Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana The Albo Linceo T his is the first document of the new society, in which the fellows of the Academy were registered. It contains the Lincei coat of arms (the lynx with the laurel branches and Federico Cesis family coronet); an image of Saint John the Evangelist, chosen as protector of the Lincei, with the motto Sapientiae Cupidi ; and the Proponimento Linceo, the first expression of their commitment to serve the human Knowledge, together with the fellows signatures. H ISTORY

4 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Lynceographum quo norma studiosae vitae […], 1605, Rome, Biblioteca dell'Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei e Corsiniana The Lynceographum T his was the fundamental document of the Academy, in which Federico Cesi and the first Lincei solemnly set out their purpose and ideals of life and study and the aim of the new institution: «Finis eius est rerum cognitionem et sapientiam non solum acquirere (...) sed et hominibus voce et scriptis (...) pacifice pandere». Portrait of FrancescoStelluti,Fabriano, Town Hall H ISTORY

5 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI O vercoming the harsh opposition of Federi- cos father, the Duke of Acquasparta, such as the attacks by the Church, the Academy survived, increased its activities and gained new members in Italy and abroad. Giambattista Della Porta ( ), philosopher, scientist and playwriter, represented the passage from the alchemical- esoteric culture of the XVI and XVII centuries to the ideas of the Lincei, based upon experimental research and close observation of Nature. Galileo Galilei, who became a member in 1611, published Istoria e dimostrazioni intorno alle macchie solari (1613) and Il Saggiatore (1623) with the support of the Academy. He was the promoter of the «new science». Portrait of Galileo, copy from the original by J. Suttermans, Rome, Palazzo Corsini, Sala delle Scienze Fisiche The Academy advances H ISTORY

6 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI The first scientific works J. van Heeck, Fructus itineris ad Septentrionales, Montpellier, Bibliothèque de l'Ecole de Médecine, , Drawings of butterflies G. Galilei, Il Saggiatore […], In Roma, appresso Giacomo Mascardi, 1623, Florence, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale G. Galilei, Istoria e dimostrazioni intorno alle macchie solari […], In Roma, appresso Giacomo Mascardi, 1613, Rome, Biblioteca dellAccademia Nazionale dei Lincei e Corsiniana H ISTORY

7 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI T he princeps and animating power of the Academy, Federico Cesi, died in 1630 at the age of 45. Under harsh criticism by the Jesuits because of its support of Galileos endorsement of the Copernican theory, officially condemned, and no longer under the protection of Pope Urban VII, the Academy found itself in great difficulty. The Academy effectively died with its founder in spite of the efforts made by Cassiano Dal Pozzo, Francesco Stelluti and others who were loyal to Cesi's memory and ideals. In 1651 Rerum Medicarum Novae Hispaniae Thesaurus, a well illustrated paper on the Mexican flora and fauna, was published as the latest witness of the work of the Lincei. The end of the first Lincei Rerum Medicaruma Novae Hispaniae Thesaurus […], 1651, Rome, Biblioteca dell'Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei e Corsiniana H ISTORY

8 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI B etween the XVIII and XIX centuries there were various attempts to revive the Academy, carried out by Giovanni Paolo Simone Bianchi, a physician from Rimini, in 1745 for a few years; by Gioacchino Pessuti and Feliciano Scarpellini in 1795, under the auspices of Francesco Caetani, Duke of Sermoneta, up until the death of Scarpellini in 1840; by Pope Pius IX, who instituted the Accademia Pontificia dei Nuovi Lincei in The three restorations of the Academy Bust of Feliciano Scarpellini, Rome, Palazzo Corsini H ISTORY

9 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI I n 1870 Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy and the Academy was renamed the «Reale Accademia dei Lincei». Quintino Sella, an eminent scientist and politician, was the promoter and leader of the newly restored Lincei as President of the Academy from 1874 until his death in In this period the Lincei was given its new Statutes and assumed its character as the national academy of the new State. Moreover, membership was extended to foreign scholars, the Class of Humanities was introduced, and, in 1884, the Lincei had their new headquarters in Palazzo Corsini. The Lincei as the national academy of Italy Quintino Sella H ISTORY

10 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Benedetto Croce I n the early Fascist period the Academy adopted an indipendent and critical attitude that caused the hostility of the regime. In 1934 the new Statutes put the Academy under governmental control and finally, in 1939, the «Accademia dItalia», instituted by the regime in 1926, annexed and suppressed the Lincei. In 1944, on the initiative of the philosopher Benedetto Croce, the new Italian Government abolished the Accademia dItalia and reinstated the Lincei Academy. Fascism and the post-war period H ISTORY

11 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI I n accordance with its Statutes, the aim of the Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei is to «promote, co- ordinate, integrate and spread scientific knowledge in its highest expressions, in the unity and universality of culture». Aims and mission T he Academy organises national and international congresses, conferences, meetings and seminars. It promotes and carries out research activities and scientific missions, awards prizes and study grants, publishes Notes and Memoirs of its meetings and conference proceedings. A CTIVITIES T he Lincei Academy maintains several exchange agreements with other foreign national academies. It represents Italy in the International Human Rights Network of Academies and Scholarly Societies; in the InterAcademy Panel on International Issues (IAP); in the InterAcademy Medical Panel (IAMP); in the All European Academies network (ALLEA); in the European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC).

12 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI S ince 1875 the Lincei include both Sciences and Humanities. The Academy is divided into two Classes: «Physical, Mathematical and Natural Sciences» and «Moral, Historical and Philological Sciences» and each Class is subdivided into Categories. The Classes Palazzo Corsini, Sala delle Scienze Fisiche Palazzo Corsini, Sala delle Scienze Morali S TRUCTURE

13 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI The Organs the President, or the Vice President in his/her stead the President, or the Vice President in his/her stead the Academic Administrator, or the Assistant Academic Administrator in his/her stead the Academic Administrator, or the Assistant Academic Administrator in his/her stead the Presidents Council the Presidents Council the Assembly of the two Classes the Assembly of the two Classes the Assembly of each Class in its competent fields the Assembly of each Class in its competent fields the College of Auditors the College of Auditors the Chancellor (General Director) the Chancellor (General Director) S TRUCTURE Palazzo Corsini, Sala della Presidenza

14 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Palazzo Corsini S EAT T he seat of the Academy is Palazzo Corsini in Via della Lungara, at the foot of the Gianicolo hill, in the heart of old Trastevere. Palazzo Corsini, façade on Via della Lungara Palazzo Corsini, back garden

15 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Palazzo Corsini S EAT P alazzo Corsini originates from the XVI century Palazzo Riario, which had been the residence of Queen Christina of Sweden, purchased in 1736 by the noble family Corsini and redesigned by the architect Ferdinando Fuga. From the entrance hall, two wide staircases lead up to the first and second floors. Palazzo Corsini, entrance hall

16 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Palazzo Corsini S EAT O n the first floor are the Library, an important part of the Academy, with its rich collection of antique and contemporary works, and the Galleria Corsini, one of the most important art galleries in Rome. Palazzo Corsini, from the hall of the first floor up to the second floor balcony

17 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI S EAT Palazzo Corsini The Library T he Library of the Academy is composed of three main sections: the Sezione Corsiniana, donated by Prince Tommaso Corsini in 1883; the Sezione Accademica, formed in 1848 through donations by various fellows; the Sezione Orientale, constituted in 1924 by Prince Leone Caetani and specializing in Arabian-Islamic culture. Palazzo Corsini, Biblioteca dellAccademia Nazionale dei Lincei e Corsiniana, Reading Room

18 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Palazzo Corsini S EAT A series of imposing rooms are situated on the second floor, among which: the conference rooms of the two Classes of the Academy, the Sala Impero, the Sala dei Divani, the Alcove, the Tapestry room, and the Sala Dutuit (which contains valuable collections of porcelain and other works of art, mainly from the Orient). The Offices of the Academy are also on this floor. Palazzo Corsini, second floor entrance hall

19 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Palazzo Corsini S EAT Palazzo Corsini, Sala dei Divani Palazzo Corsini, Sala dellAlcova

20 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Palazzo Corsini S EAT Palazzo Corsini, Sala degli Arazzi Palazzo Corsini, Sala Dutuit

21 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Villa Farnesina S EAT O n Via della Lungara, opposite Palazzo Corsini, the Villa Farnesina, completed by the renowned architect Baldassarre Peruzzi in 1509, is set in the midst of a beautiful garden. Acquired by the rich Sienese banker Agostino Chigi, the villa was then purchased by Cardinal Alessandro Farnese (from whom it takes its name) in 1577 and, after various owners throughout the centuries, it was bought by the Italian State in 1928 as headquarters of the Accademia dItalia. When this was suppressed in 1944, the villa became the property of the reinstated Accademia dei Lincei. Villa Farnesina, North façade

22 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Villa Farnesina S EAT T he Villa is a wonderful example of Renaissance art and architecture, decorated by such famous painters as Raphael, Sebastiano del Piombo, Giovanni Antonio Bazzi (called Sodoma), Giulio Romano and Baldassarre Peruzzi himself. G. A. Bazzi (Sodoma), The Wedding of Alexander and Roxane, Villa Farnesina, The Wedding Room

23 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Villa Farnesina S EAT O n the ground floor of the Villa an entrance hall leads to the Loggia of Psyche, frescoed by Raphael and his pupils Giulio Romano, Francesco Penni, Raffaellino del Colle and Giovanni da Udine with episodes of the story of Eros and Psyche as narrated by Apuleius in the Metamorphosis. On the left of the Loggia of Psyche is the Frieze Room, around which is a fresco of mythological scenes by Baldassarre Peruzzi. Loggia of Psyche, Villa Farnesina

24 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI Villa Farnesina S EAT On the right side of the Villa is the Hall of Galatea, decorated with fine paintings of mythological themes, among which Raphaels famous fresco representing the triumph of the nymph Galatea. Hall of Galatea, Villa Farnesina Raphael, The Triumph of Galatea, Villa Farnesina

25 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI S EAT Villa Farnesina O n the first floor is the Salone delle Prospettive, designed by Peruzzi in trompe loeil which gives the viewer the illusion of looking outside through the painted columns. Baldassarre Peruzzi, The Hall of the Perspectives, Villa Farnesina

26 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI S EAT Villa Farnesina T he building is surrounded by a beautiful garden of bergamot trees, Lebanese cedars, cypresses, laurel bushes and evergreens. N ext to a XIX century fountain in the southern part of the garden, set against a stretch of the ancient Aurelian Walls, one can see a marble plaque (probably XVII century) which bears the inscription: Quisquis huc accedis: quod tibi horridum videtur mihi amoenum est; si placet, maneas, si taedet abeas, utrumque gratum («Whoever enters here: what seems horrid to you is pleasant to me. If you like it, stay, if it bores you, go away; both are equally pleasing to me»).

27 A CCADEMIA N AZIONALE DEI L INCEI F urther information is available on the Lincei Academy website at and on the website of the Committee for the IV Centenary Celebrations at


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