# M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis The process of analyzing information and making decisions based on numerical data. Analyzes fundamental.

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M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis The process of analyzing information and making decisions based on numerical data. Analyzes fundamental factors such as supply and demand, or competitors’ strengths and weaknesses. Quantitative analysts are employed by financial services businesses such as life insurance companies, pension funds, money management companies, and other Wall Street firms.

M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis Statistical Process Control (SPC), Poka Yoke, 8D Process, 5S Process, Ishikawa Diagram, Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility

M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis Statistical Process Control (SPC) History Statistical Process Control was pioneered by Walter A. Shewhart in the early 1920s. W.Edwards Deming later applied SPC methods in the US during World War II, thereby successfully improving quality in the manufacture of munitions and other strategically important products.

M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis Statistical Process Control (SPC) The principles of SPC: How SPC increases the quality of manufactured goods How SPC effectively monitors the production line and aids in production control Variables Control Charts Attributes Control Charts How to set up a new SPC program: Initial Data collection Making the Control Chart How to interpret SPC Control Charts: Standard Chart Patterns Chart Pattern Interpretation

M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis Statistical Process Control (SPC) Statistical Process Control (SPC) is an effective method of monitoring a process through the use of control charts. By collecting data from samples at various points within the process, variations in the process that may affect the quality of the end product or service can be detected and corrected.

M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis Control Charts

M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis Control Charts The control chart, also known as the 'Shewhart chart' or 'process- behaviour chart' is a tool used to determine whether a manufacturing or business process is in a state of statistical control or not.processstatistical control A control chart is a graphical tool used by quality tech/eng to control, analyze and document the processes involved in production and other quality-relevant areas. If the chart indicates that the process is currently under control then it can be used with confidence to predict the future performance of the process. If the chart indicates that the process being monitored is not in control, the pattern it reveals can help determine the source of variation to be eliminated to bring the process back into control.

M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis Control Charts A control chart consists of the following: 1.Points representing measurements of a quality characteristic in samples taken from the process at different times [the data]. 2.A centre line, drawn at the process characteristic mean which is calculated from the data. 3.Upper and lower control limits (sometimes called "natural process limits") that indicate the threshold at which the process output is considered statistically 'unlikely'

M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis Control Charts The chart may contain other optional features, including: 1.Upper and lower warning limits, drawn as separate lines, typically two standard deviations above and below the centre line. 1.Division into zones, with the addition of rules governing frequencies of observations in each zone. 1.Annotation with events of interest, as determined by the Quality Engineer in charge of the process's quality.

M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis Control Charts Benefits: Provides surveillance and feedback for keeping processes in control Signals when a problem with the process has occurred Detects assignable causes of variation Accomplishes process characterization Reduces need for inspection Monitors process quality Provides mechanism to make process changes and track effects of those changes Once a process is stable (assignable causes of variation have been eliminated), provides process capability analysis with comparison to the product tolerance

M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis Poka Yoke Is a japanese term that means “fail–safing” or “mistake- proofing”. Is a quality management concept developed by Matsushita manufacturing engineer named Shigeo Shingo to prevent human errors from occurring in the production line. The main objective of poke yoke is to achieve zero defects. The gold is to eliminate defective products.

M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis 8D Process Is a problem management tool popularly used in responding to customer returns or issues. It incorporates all the important aspects of problem management: - problem correction - problem prevention

M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis 5S Process Is a structured program to systematically achieve total organization, cleanliness and standardization in the workplace. A well-organized workplace results in a safer, more efficient and more productive operation. It boosts the morale of the workers, promoting sense of pride in workplace and ownership of their responsibilities. Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu and Shitsuke

M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis Ishikawa Diagram A graphic tool used to explore and display opinion about sources of variation in a process Also called a cause and effect or fishbone Diagram

M.Nuzaihan DMT 243 – Chapter 6 Quantitative Analysis Gauge Repeatability and Reproducibility Is a measure of the capability of a gauge to obtain the measurement reading every time the measurement process is undertaken for the same characteristic or parameter. Indicates the consistency and stability of measuring equipment. The ability of a measuring device to provide consistent measurement data is important in the control of any process.

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