Presentation on theme: "What is History?. WWWWWH of History? Who? –Who makes it? Who is it about? What? –What is included? What is not included? When? –When does history take."— Presentation transcript:
WWWWWH of History? Who? –Who makes it? Who is it about? What? –What is included? What is not included? When? –When does history take place? Where? –Where does history happen? Why? –Why do we study it? How? –How do we study it? With the person sitting next to you, BRAINSTORM! Be ready to share!
History as a Discipline What is history? History is a representation of the past based upon interpretations of evidence (primary and secondary sources) available. Therefore, history is constructed knowledge.
How do people typically view history? People see history as the construction and memorization of a “factoid narrative.” Many see history as a finished story. It is names, dates, and places. See history as linear (one thing after another) and progressive (things are getting better) They often personify history--For example, Putin is Russia. Fail to see the relevance of history
Why do history? History is not static. Historical representations change over time. – New evidence comes to light – Changes in technology – Present concerns inform the ways historians think about the past – As theories change, historians review existing evidence. – Pose new questions.
According to the Library of Congress, primary sources are the raw materials of history — documents and objects which were created at the time under study. They are different from secondary sources - accounts or interpretations of events created by someone without firsthand experience. Definition
Primary Sources Primary sources are the original sources of information recorded at the time an event occurred. –First-hand accounts of events –Data collected for scientific studies –Historical documents
Primary Sources Primary sources can also be written well after events. - memoirs - oral histories
Why use primary sources? To explain how major events are related to each other in time. To think critically and distinguish between fact and opinion. To recognize point of view in print and visual materials.
Why use primary sources? To develop your own conclusions and analyze how historical events affect your life. To recognize failures and successes in the past in order to make better decisions as a citizen. To understand who you are by examining your roots or placing yourself in that time period or situation.
Primary Source Examples Diaries Poetry Personal Interviews Government Documents Autobiographies Peer-reviewed Journal Articles Photographs Artifacts/Epheme ra Image taken from: http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/b ib/ourdocs/DeclarInd.html
Finding Primary Sources To find primary documents on the web, try the following internet search topic + “primary source”
An accurate summary of the source provided (who, what, where…) It is clear as to who created this source, when it was written, and what type of source it is. Accurate /thoughtful connections made between source and what was happening at that time and place in history. Interesting and thoughtful connections made between the source and what the students already know, or what they can relate it to. Bias and point of view are clearly identified. Students support their claims with specific examples from source. Student provides a thoughtful conclusion that closely connects to source
Secondary Sources Secondary sources of information are derived from primary sources –Summaries of primary sources –Analyses or interpretations of primary sources
Why use secondary sources? To get expert opinions in order to evaluate what really happened. To gain insight by examining the same event from different perspectives. To form your own opinion. To save time by reading information collected from a number of different sources.
Secondary Source Examples Dictionaries Encyclopedias Articles that review other sources Textbooks Biographies
Reading Sources Ask these basic questions about every source, no matter how obvious the answer might seem. –Who wrote this? –What does it say? –When was it written? –Where was it written? –Why was it written?
Summing Up It is important to determine the type of information you are looking at. –Primary sources are original sources of information –Secondary sources summarize, analyze, or critique primary sources –Both primary and secondary sources can be good sources of information, but you need to critically evaluate them.
Methods of Dating Artifacts Artifacts are another way we gain understanding of the past. We can determine the age of artifacts by two main methods: –Stratigraphy –Radiocarbon dating.
Stratigraphy The layers in rock represent a time period.
Radiocarbon Dating All living matter has a carbon isotope called C-14. C-14 Decays at a constant rate. Its half life is 5730 years.