Single Covalent Bonds A single pair of shared electrons is represented by a straight line connecting the atoms Sometimes atoms attain noble gas configuration by sharing a single pair of electrons Electrons can be represented by using dots
Sigma Bond ( ) = a single bond A Sigma Bond is when 2 atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis S orbitals overlapping P orbitals overlapping end-to-end
Double Covalent Bonds A Double Covalent Bond is a bond that involves 2 shared pairs of electrons (4 e - ) Sometimes atoms attain noble gas configuration by sharing 2 pairs of electrons
Pi Bond ( ) = a double bond Pi bonding electrons are likely to be found in a sausage-shape above and below the axis Pi bonds are weaker than sigma bonds because they overlap less Pi bonds are weaker than sigma bonds because they overlap less P orbitals overlapping side-by-side
Triple Covalent Bond A Triple Covalent Bond is a bond that involves 3 shared pairs of electrons (6 e - )
Bond Length and Energy Bonds between elements become shorter and stronger as multiplicity increases.
Double bond Two pairs of shared electrons Ethene Three pairs of shared electrons Ethyne Triple bond Multiple Covalent Bonds: