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POLI di MI tecnicolanotecnicolano WT 2 : the Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel Project C.L. Bottasso, F. Campagnolo Politecnico di Milano, Italy Spring 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "POLI di MI tecnicolanotecnicolano WT 2 : the Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel Project C.L. Bottasso, F. Campagnolo Politecnico di Milano, Italy Spring 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 POLI di MI tecnicolanotecnicolano WT 2 : the Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel Project C.L. Bottasso, F. Campagnolo Politecnico di Milano, Italy Spring 2010

2 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Outline Project goals The wind tunnel at the Politecnico di Milano Wind turbine model scaling and configuration Aerodynamics Blade manufacturing Simulation environment Data acquisition, control and model management system Conclusions and outlook

3 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Project Goals Goals Goals: design, manufacture and test an aeroelastically-scaled model of the Vestas V90 wind turbine Applications Applications: Testing and comparison of advanced control laws and supporting technologies (e.g. wind and state observers) Testing of extreme operating conditions (e.g. high speed high yawed flow, shut-down in high winds, etc.) Tuning of mathematical models Testing of system identification techniques Aeroelasticity of wind turbines … Possible extensions: - Multiple wind turbine interactions - Aeroelasticity of off-shore wind turbines (with prescribed motion of wind turbine base) - Effects of terrain orography on wind turbines - …

4 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab The Politecnico di Milano Wind Tunnel 1.4MW Civil-Aeronautical Wind Tunnel (CAWT): 13.8x3.8m, 14m/s, civil section: - turbulence < 2% - with turbulence generators = 25% - 13m turntable 4x3.8m, 55m/s, aeronautical section: - turbulence <0.1% - open-closed test section 1.4MW Civil-Aeronautical Wind Tunnel (CAWT): 13.8x3.8m, 14m/s, civil section: - turbulence < 2% - with turbulence generators = 25% - 13m turntable 4x3.8m, 55m/s, aeronautical section: - turbulence <0.1% - open-closed test section

5 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Turbulence (boundary layer) generators The Politecnico di Milano Wind Tunnel Turn-table 13 m Low speed testing in the presence of vertical wind profile Multiple wind turbine testing (wake-machine interaction) Low speed testing in the presence of vertical wind profile Multiple wind turbine testing (wake-machine interaction) High speed testing Aerodynamic characterization (C p -TSR-β & C F -TSR-β curves) High speed testing Aerodynamic characterization (C p -TSR-β & C F -TSR-β curves)

6 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Outline Project goals The wind tunnel at the Politecnico di Milano Wind turbine model scaling and configuration Aerodynamics Blade manufacturing Simulation environment Data acquisition, control and model management system Conclusions and outlook

7 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Model Scaling Criteria for definition of scaling Criteria for definition of scaling (using Buckingham Π Theorem): Best compromise between: Reynolds mismatch Reynolds mismatch (quality of aerodynamics) Speed-up of scaled time Speed-up of scaled time (avoid excessive increase of control bandwith) Aeroelastic effects Aeroelastic effects: correct relative placement of frequencies wrt rev harmonics, correct Lock number Reynolds mismatch Reynolds mismatch: Use low-Re airfoils (AH79 & WM006) to minimize aerodynamic differences Keep same chord distribution as original V90 blade, but Adjust blade twist to optimize axial induction factor Reynolds mismatch Reynolds mismatch: Use low-Re airfoils (AH79 & WM006) to minimize aerodynamic differences Keep same chord distribution as original V90 blade, but Adjust blade twist to optimize axial induction factor

8 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab CONICAL SPIRAL TOOTHED GEARS Rotor radius = 1m Balance (6 force/moment components) Balance (6 force/moment components) Height = 2.8 m Up-tilt = 6 deg Electronic board for blade strain gages V2 Model Configuration

9 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Conical spiral gears Main shaft with torque meter Pitch actuator control units: Faulhaber MCDC-3003 C 30 V – 10 A Max Position and speed Pitch actuator control units: Faulhaber MCDC-3003 C 30 V – 10 A Max Position and speed Slip ring Moog AC6355: 36 Channels 250 V – 2 A Max Slip ring Moog AC6355: 36 Channels 250 V – 2 A Max Torque actuator: Portescap Brushless B Pn = 340 W Planetary gearhead Torque and speed control Torque actuator: Portescap Brushless B Pn = 340 W Planetary gearhead Torque and speed control Cone = 4 deg V2 Model Configuration Pitch actuator: Faulhaber 1524 Zero backlash gearhead Built-in encoder IE 512 Pitch actuator: Faulhaber 1524 Zero backlash gearhead Built-in encoder IE 512

10 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab V2 Model Configuration

11 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab V2 Model Configuration Wind turbine model shown without nacelle and tower covers, for clarity

12 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Outline Project goals The wind tunnel at the Politecnico di Milano Wind turbine model scaling and configuration Aerodynamics Blade manufacturing Simulation environment Data acquisition, control and model management system Conclusions and outlook

13 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab CPCP TSR Region II1/2 P

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14 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Filippo Campagnolo BEM Predicted Aerodynamic Performance CFCF TSR Region II1/2 P

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15 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Aerodynamic Identification Goal Goal: identification of airfoil aerodynamic characteristics Application Application: blade redesign, choice of airfoils, understanding of rotor aerodynamics Approach Approach: use wind tunnel measurements of the wind turbine response Pros: Avoid testing of individual airfoils Include 3D and rotational effects Procedure Procedure: 1.Measure power and thrust coefficients 2.Parameterize airfoil lift and drag coefficients 3.Identify airfoil aerodynamic parameters that best match wind turbine performance, using a BEM model of the rotor Work in progress (Work in progress, results expected summer 2010)

16 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Constrained optimization Constrained optimization : Goal Goal : match C P & C F at tested TSR & β Unknowns Unknowns : parameters describing airfoil C L & C D characteristics Rotor model Rotor model : BEM Constrained optimization Constrained optimization : Goal Goal : match C P & C F at tested TSR & β Unknowns Unknowns : parameters describing airfoil C L & C D characteristics Rotor model Rotor model : BEM Experimental C P & C F coefficients Trim at varying pitch β and TSR Measure power C P and thrust C F Trim at varying pitch β and TSR Measure power C P and thrust C F CDCD Design data Identified data CLCL

17 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Outline Project goals The wind tunnel at the Politecnico di Milano Wind turbine model scaling and configuration Aerodynamics Blade manufacturing Simulation environment Data acquisition, control and model management system Conclusions and outlook

18 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Rigid blades Rigid blades: Easier and faster to manufacture than aero-elastically scaled blades Used for initial testing and verification of suitable aerodynamic performance Implemented two manufacturing solutions: 1. CNC machining of light aluminum alloy2. UD carbon fiber Blade Manufacturing CAD model for CNC machining, with support tabs (+resin support) Carbon blades (will include blade-root strain gage in 2 nd blade set – May 2010) FEM verification of strain gage sensitivity Carbon blades (will include blade-root strain gage in 2 nd blade set – May 2010) FEM verification of strain gage sensitivity

19 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Blade Manufacturing Aero-elastically scaled blades Aero-elastically scaled blades: Need accurate aerodynamic shape: classical segmented solution is unsuitable Structural requirements: match at least lower three modes Very challenging problem: only 70g of weight for 1m of span! Solution Solution: Rohacell core with carbon fiber spars and film coating Sizing using constrained optimization Work in progress (Work in progress, expected completion of blade set by end of 2010)

20 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Design of the V2 Aero-elastically Scaled Composite Blade Width Chordwise Position Thickness Sectional optimization variables (position, width, thickness) Span-wise shape function interpolation Sectional optimization variables (position, width, thickness) Span-wise shape function interpolation ANBA AN B A ANBA ( AN isotropic B eam A nalysis) FEM cross sectional model: Evaluation of cross sectional stiffness (6 by 6 fully populated matrix) ANBA AN B A ANBA ( AN isotropic B eam A nalysis) FEM cross sectional model: Evaluation of cross sectional stiffness (6 by 6 fully populated matrix) Objective Objective : size spars (width, chordwise position & thickness)for desired sectional stiffnesswithin mass budget Cost function Cost function : sectional stiffness error wrt target (scaled stiffness) Constraints Constraints : lowest 3 frequencies Objective Objective : size spars (width, chordwise position & thickness)for desired sectional stiffnesswithin mass budget Cost function Cost function : sectional stiffness error wrt target (scaled stiffness) Constraints Constraints : lowest 3 frequencies Rohacell core with groovesfor the housing of carbonfiber spars Thermo-retractable film Carbon fiber spars for desired stiffness

21 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Design of the V2 Aero-elastically Scaled Composite Blade Filippo Campagnolo Mass gap can be corrected with weights Solid line: scaled reference values Dash-dotted line: optimal sizing

22 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Design of the V2 Aero-elastically Scaled Composite Blade Filippo Campagnolo Approach Approach: simple specimen 1.Demonstration of technology on simple specimen: Design specimen (uniform cross section, untwisted) of typical properties (mass, stiffness) Characterize material properties Manufacture specimen Characterize specimen (mass, stiffness, frequencies, shape) Verify accuracy wrt design Status: completed blade-like specimen 1.Demonstration of technology on blade-like specimen (twist, variable chord) Status: in progress wind turbine model blade 3.Manufacture wind turbine model blade Status: to be done (expected end 2010)

23 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Characterization Characterization of material properties: Specimen Specimen of uniform properties: Results Results: Good matching of lowest natural frequencies Acceptable repeatability Good shape and finishing Demonstration of Technology on Simple Specimen Dynamic testing Static testing Temperature–dependent characterization Carbon fiber spars Airfoil cross section

24 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Outline Project goals The wind tunnel at the Politecnico di Milano Wind turbine model scaling and configuration Aerodynamics Blade manufacturing Simulation environment Data acquisition, control and model management system Conclusions and outlook

25 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Wind Measurement noise Simulation Environment Comprehensive aero-elastic simulation environment Comprehensive aero-elastic simulation environment: supports all phases of the wind turbine model design (loads, aero-elasticity, and control)

26 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Cp-Lambda highlights: Geometrically exact composite-ready FEM beam models Generic topology (Cartesian coordinates+Lagrange multipliers) Dynamic wake model (Peters-He, yawed flow conditions) Efficient large-scale DAE solver Non-linearly stable time integrator Fully IEC compliant (DLCs, wind models) Cp-Lambda highlights: Geometrically exact composite-ready FEM beam models Generic topology (Cartesian coordinates+Lagrange multipliers) Dynamic wake model (Peters-He, yawed flow conditions) Efficient large-scale DAE solver Non-linearly stable time integrator Fully IEC compliant (DLCs, wind models) Rigid body Geometrically exact beam Revolute joint Flexible joint Actuator ANBA (ANisotropic Beam Analysis) cross sectional model Compute sectional stiffness Recover cross sectional stresses/strains Simulation Models

27 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Example Example: verify adequacy of model for the testing of control laws Question Question: does testing of control laws on V2 lead to similar conclusions than V90 testing, notwithstanding differences in aerodynamics (Reynolds)? Approach Approach: Choose comparison metrics Simulate response of scaled and full-scale models Compare responses upon back-scaling Draw conclusions Simulation Environment Model Parameters Model Parameters Aeroelastic Simulation Aeroelastic Simulation Aeroelastic Simulation Aeroelastic Simulation Scaling Laws Scaling Laws Inverse Scaling Laws Inverse Scaling Laws Performance Example: LQR controller outperforms PID by similar amount on V2 and V90

28 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Outline Project goals The wind tunnel at the Politecnico di Milano Wind turbine model scaling and configuration Aerodynamics Blade manufacturing Simulation environment Data acquisition, control and model management system Conclusions and outlook

29 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Data Acquisition, Control and Model Management System Control PC Control PC : Real time Linux OS (RTAI) Supervisory control Control logic: - Normal mode: pitch-torque control law - Trimming mode: RPM regulation and pitch setting Control PC Control PC : Real time Linux OS (RTAI) Supervisory control Control logic: - Normal mode: pitch-torque control law - Trimming mode: RPM regulation and pitch setting Remote Control Unit Remote Control Unit: Management of experiment (choice of control logic, choice of trim points, etc.) Data logging, post-processing and visualization Emergency shut-down Remote Control Unit Remote Control Unit: Management of experiment (choice of control logic, choice of trim points, etc.) Data logging, post-processing and visualization Emergency shut-down Wind tunnel control panel Wind turbine sensor readings Wind turbine sensor readings : Shaft torque-meter Balance strain gages Blade strain gages (May 2010) Rotor RPM and azimuth Blade pitch Nacelle accelerometer Wind tunnel sensor readings Wind tunnel sensor readings : Wind speed Temperature, humidity Wind turbine sensor readings Wind turbine sensor readings : Shaft torque-meter Balance strain gages Blade strain gages (May 2010) Rotor RPM and azimuth Blade pitch Nacelle accelerometer Wind tunnel sensor readings Wind tunnel sensor readings : Wind speed Temperature, humidity Pitch demand Torque demand Pitch demand Torque demand Ethernet

30 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Outline Project goals The wind tunnel at the Politecnico di Milano Wind turbine model scaling and configuration Aerodynamics Blade manufacturing Simulation environment Data acquisition, control and model management system Conclusions and outlook

31 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Conclusions and Outlook many fronts Work is in progress on many fronts, no meaningful conclusions can be drawn at the moment Work plan Work plan: Initial entry in the wind tunnel by April 2010 (rigid blades, trimming control mode) - Verification of functionality of all systems, troubleshooting, software debugging - Verification of aerodynamic performance (measurement of C P -TSR-β & C F -TSR-β curves) Second entry in May 2010 after fixes/improvements (rigid blades with root strain gages, trimming and normal control modes) Aerodynamic identification: possible redesign of rotor blades to improve aerodynamic model fidelity (airfoils, transition strips, flaps, etc.) Blade design and manufacturing: - Implement strain gages in composite rigid blades - Continue development of flexible composite blades - Add strain gages and/or fiber optics to flexible composite blades Control and management system: complete and improve GUI and functionalities Full model capabilities: expected end 2010

32 WT 2 : Wind Turbine in a Wind Tunnel POLITECNICO di MILANO Poli-Wind Research Lab Acknowledgements Vestas Wind Systems A/S Research funded by Vestas Wind Systems A/S The authors gratefully acknowledge the contribution of S. Calovi and S. Cacciola, G. Galetto, L. Maffenini, P. Marrone, M. Mauri, M. Monguzzi, D. Rocchi, S. Rota, G. Sala of the Politecnico di Milano


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