2 Constructive Response Question Summarize the Crusades including causes and effects.
3 The Crusades The Crusades What is a crusade? A holy war involving the journey of thousands of Europeans to reclaim the holy land of Jerusalem in the name of ChristianityIn all, there were 8 or 9 Crusades (depending on your source)
4 The Crusades When were the Crusades? Starts in 1093 and lasts for nearly 300 years
6 The CrusadesWhy crusade? Social, Economic, Spiritual, & Political reasonsSocial: Opportunity to get knights to stop fighting each other and fight a new foe. These knights threatened peace in Europe.Economic: The Holy Lands of Jerusalem were generally wealthier than Europe and many wanted to get their share of that wealth
7 The CrusadesWhy crusade? Social, Economic, Spiritual, & Political reasonsEconomic: Younger sons who did not stand to inherit father’s property were looking for wealth and adventureEconomic: Merchants supplied loans to finance the journey
8 The CrusadesWhy crusade? Social, Economic, Spiritual, & Political reasonsPolitical: A chance for the pope to gain territory instead of Byzantine rivalSpiritual: Fight/die on Crusade = ticket to heaven (Christian contradiction)
10 The Crusades What happened: First Crusade Pope Urban II called for a holy war against Muslims controlling holy landsUrban’s call brought tremendous support for the CrusadeThose who died on Crusade were assured a ticket to heaven“God wills it!” was the battle cry3,000 mile journey from Europe to JerusalemEventually, 12,000 approached Jerusalem and besieged it for a monthOn July 15, 1099, the Christians captured the cityIn the process, the Christians slaughtered all of the Muslims left in the city
11 The Crusades Second Crusade The Muslim Army under command of Saladin captured Jerusalem again in 1187The Christians crusade to defeat Saladin and recapture the city
14 The Crusades The Third Crusade Led by 3 of Europe’s most powerful monarchsPhilip II of France – went homeGerman Emperor Frederick – drowned on journey
15 The Crusades The Third Crusade English King Richard the Lion-Hearted Fought many battles against SaladinAgreed to a truce with Saladin in 1192Jerusalem stayed under Muslim controlSaladin promised unarmed Christians could freely visit the city’s holy places
16 The Crusades Other attempts 4th Crusade failed to recapture Jerusalem In the 1200s, four more Crusades were also unsuccessfulThe Children’s Crusade
17 The Crusades Effects of the Crusades Example of Church power Trade expanded between Europe and Southwest AsiaThousands of knights and other participants lost their livesThose who survived brought back culture to EuropePersecution of Jews; thousands were slaughtered because they were infidelsFailure of later crusades lessened the power of the popeThe Crusades weakened the power of the feudal nobility (Knights were dead)Began a legacy of bitterness and hatred of Christians for the Muslims and vice versa
18 The CrusadesResult: The Crusades were a violation of “Thou Shalt Not Kill.” It was also an example of an abuse of church power. The effects of the Crusades are still felt through that region of the world today.
19 Constructive Response Question Summarize the Crusades including causes and effects.