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Departamento de Investigaciones Educativas, Cinvestav. México Consejo Mexicano de Investigación EducativaMaria de Ibarrola WERA/AERA May 4, 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "Departamento de Investigaciones Educativas, Cinvestav. México Consejo Mexicano de Investigación EducativaMaria de Ibarrola WERA/AERA May 4, 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 Departamento de Investigaciones Educativas, Cinvestav. México Consejo Mexicano de Investigación EducativaMaria de Ibarrola WERA/AERA May 4, 2010

2 1989. Mexico into the XXIst Century NAFTA / OCDE The Modernization of Mexican education. Towards a 15 grade compulsory education Diversification of Higher education The Modernization of Technical and Vocational Education World class graduate education and research

3 Actual increase in enrollment at all levels, creation of different types of schools and profitting from ITCs for distance education 11 Competencies based education – Educational aims at all levels: from preschool- to higher education to be defined and understood in terms of competencies Evaluation, mainly of standard performances, national and international: PISA, TIMS, Enlace, Excale – Budget assignement strictly linked to results as evaluated – Teachers (Individual level): income increases through merit pay and specific monetary stimuli after performance evaluation of teachers and their students. – Institutional level: additional institutional budget subject to results of teachers and students – Researchers become members of a National System through peer reviewed academic productivity and are entitled to a significant part of their income through a scholarship

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5 About 50% of youngsters 15-24 are out of the school system; 35 million adults and young adults have not acquired the basic compulsory education.66 1994: The FZLN launches an ideological (and paper) war The debate on intercultural education Young Mexicans PISA competencies for the knowledge society are among the lowest results for OECD countries 77 High internal inequality among regions and school modalities The failure of the PMTyC Student career choices

6 *Para 1960 se reporta unicamente la población con primaria completa Fuentes: INEGI.Indicadores sociodemográficos 1930- 2000; Muñoz Garcia, H. Perfil educativo de la población mexicana, INEGI, 1996;

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8 Knowledge areas 1970 % 1984 % 2006 % Instituciones privadas 2006 Universidade s tecnológicas, 2006 % Posgrado 2006 (total) % Agricultural sciences 3.7 9.5 2.1 0.3 1.11.7 Health Sciences19.614.5 8.9 5.6 4.214.7 Exact and Natural Sciences.9 3.0 1.8 0.3 05.1 Social and Administrative Sciences 43.542.8 44.2 63.6 37.045.5 Education and Humanities 4.1 2.9 11.6 6.6 1.821.5 Engineering and Technology 28.227.331.4 23.9 55.911.5 100.0 Total251 054 939 513 2150146 712 648 80 176162 003

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10 – Not only economic but demographic, cultural, social and political transformations. – Changes in the world of work Mexico labor markets – The skills of the labor force 1111 – Growth of the informal labor market 1212 – Informality and precarious jobs within the formal sector – The struggle for low qualified jobs: Street and Street corner economy Not enough jobs for the better qualified young people. Migration Graduate students in Mexico and abroad Brain drain ( new fashions) Underemployment Schooling plays an actual role in the compensation of work in all labor sectors 1313

11 Schooling 19922004 Crecimient o 1992-2004 0 a 5grades33.520.3-13.2 De 6 a 941.239.7-1.5 Percentage below upper secondary (low skills) 74.760.0-14.7 De 10 a 12 (middle skills )13.619.55.9 13 años y más (higher skills) 11.720.58.8 Total de la PEA de 25 a 60 años 100.0 Tabla 1. La escolaridad de la PEA se ha incrementado notoriamente, pero todavía el 60% apenas cumple con la obligatoria 1010

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13 Fuente Base de datos SITEAL

14 In spite of world education policies, the country is not having a steady development Nevertheless, Schooling is meaning an important difference in socioeconomic position in the country Is it the quality of education achieved? National scandals and debates detonated by PISAs results Underpaid teachers? Is it the fault of the National Union of Teachers? Mexicos resulNot enough budget? ts correspond exactly to Mexicos place among the development rank, so, should we change the development rank?

15 General lack of consensus on where should education aim. and how to reach it. Schooling is not the variable, manipulable at will, that will detonate economic development. Schooling and education beyond schooling should be integrated to a national projetc where the search of equality should be the first aim: A more equitative income distribution A far deeper intercultural reality than what was generally thought

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17 Sectores ocupacionales 1992 PEA 13 y más 2004 PEA 13 y más Sector informal 15.3 19.5 Cuenta propia2.53.9 Asalariados y patrones en empresas >5 13.6 15.6 Sector formal 84.6 80.4 Sector público5.910.2 Empresas grandes sector secundario 15.3 17.0 Empresas grandes sector terciario 63.2 53.1 Tabla 5. Active population with higher education has increased in all labor market sectors33 But is still concentrated in the formal sector, mainly in Government and Services de Ibarrola. Ponencia ALAST 2010

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