6 Abnormal cell division Normal cells lose their ability to limit and direct their growth. They divide too rapidly and grow without any order.
7 What happens if cells are unable to regulate the cell cycle? Cancer is a disease that iscaused by loss of control of thecell cycle.Cells continue to divideuncontrollably.
8 Cancer Cancer: uncontrolled cell division Tumors (lumps or masses of cancerous cells) will result because of this uncontrolled cell division.Tumors can be either malignant (spread - dangerous) or benign (can’t spread – safe)
9 MetastasizeCancer cells also can spread, to other parts of the body and form new tumors.How do they spread?They spread by using the circulatory system and lymph nodes.
11 What causes cancer? Damage to the cells DNA from: Poor Diet Certain Pathogens (Viruses)GeneticsUV Radiation (Sun)Drugs (Tobacco)Mutations - to genes, the cell's instructions for making the proteins it needs to survive, grow and multiply.Ultraviolet radiationVirusesUsually cancer is not inheritedCarcinogens: chemicalsA third of all cancers in the UK are linked to diet. Some types of food increase your risk, while others seem to have a protective effect. For example, a diet low in saturated fat, alcohol and red meat and high in fiber, fruit and vegetables can reduce your risk of some cancers, such as breast and colon cancer. Fruit and vegetables contain natural chemicals, antioxidants, that mop up free radicals: chemicals that can damage genes.Usually cancer is not inherited, even in families with several people affected, since it is a common disease. However, some people are born with an increased risk of cancer, because they inherit an altered gene important for cell growth or for repair of damaged DNA, for example. Scientists have already identified some of the genes that predispose to breast and colon cancer. There are likely to be others.
12 Anatomy of a Cigarette Smoking causes a third of all cases of cancer Cigarette smoke contains 3000 different chemicals, some of which are carcinogens. Some people have a lower risk of developing lung cancer. Their cells may be more efficient at repairing the gene damage caused by the carcinogens.
14 Treatment Surgery: physical removal of the malignant tumor Radiation: disrupts cell divisionChemotherapy: drugs that prevent cell division by interfering with mitosisCertain body tissues, such as breast and prostate, require hormones to develop. When cancer originates in these tissues, it responds to hormones. This means that the cancer responds to hormonal manipulation, which includes the administration of hormones, the withdrawal of hormones, or interference with hormone function. For example, by using chemicals that block the action of these hormones, it is possible to slow down, or even stop, the growth of cancer cells