Presentation on theme: "Human Capital and the National Innovation Strategy for Competitiveness The case of Chile Hernán Araneda Head, Centre for Innovation in Human Capital Fundación."— Presentation transcript:
Human Capital and the National Innovation Strategy for Competitiveness The case of Chile Hernán Araneda Head, Centre for Innovation in Human Capital Fundación Chile Prepared for the OECD/Germany Workshop Advancing innovation: human resources, education and training Bonn, 17-18 November 2008
Who we are: Fundación Chile is a non-profit, privately owned corporation, created in 1976 by an agreement between the Chilean Government and ITT Corporation (U.S.A.).In 2005 BHP Billiton became a co founder. Our Mission: To increase the competitivity of human resources and productive sectors and services, by promoting and developing high impact innovations, technology transfer and management for the country. About Fundación Chile
There are three proven models worldwide that are examples for emerging economies: The industrialization model of China, The outsourcing model of India and the model of Fundación Chile (OECD) …by 1982, Fundación Chile had its first salmon farm up and running. Seven years later it sold it to a Japanese company for $22 million (Businessweek) In 2004, its first year, the laboratory turned out 1.7m partially fattened lilly bulbs, using up-to-date biotechnology. Vitro Centre is a joint venture between local investors, Fundación Chile and a Dutch firm… (The Economist)
16 million people, native language spanish Upper Middle income country, per capita GDP US$ 12.000 (purchasing power parity) Average GDP Growth 1990-2005: 5,5 % Global Competitive Index 2007: 26 Significant progress in poverty reduction: 44% to 18% (1986-2006). Unemployment rate: 7.3 (best in 8 years) High coverage in primary and secondary education Participation in Tertiary Education has tripled in the last 15 years. Chiles background
Corruption Perception Index Ranking Among Latin American Countries 1 st Overall Ranking Among 146 Countries 20 th Source: Transparency International (www.transparency.org), 2005 GDP : Annual Growth Rates Selected Countries: average 1990-2005 Chile is performing fine in several rankings… POVERTY19872006 % of population 44% 18% Source: ECLAC
But… Percapita income still lacks behind the OECD (40% of OECD average income level) Unequal income distribution (0.55 Gini; 0.75 excluding the highest income decile) Economy too dependent on commodities: more R&D investment required Relatively low labour productivity Low quality of learning outcomes across the education system (Simce, TIMMS, PISA, IALS) Uneven distribution of opportunities in higher education and training Low participation of women in the labour force
The countrys most important goal: doubling percapita income in the next 15 years to become a developed country … and this is a major challenge. Only once in our history have we managed to double our per capita GDP in 16 years: 1988-2004. IMF: per capita GDP (US dollars, Sept. 2006) Estonia (17,802) Lithuania (15,443) Argentina (14,838) Latvia (13,875) Malaysia (11,915) CHILE Singapore (29,743) Taiwan (29,244) Spain (27,542) N. Zealand (25,655) Slovenia (23,159) Korea (21,887) USA (43,236) Canada (35,779) Hong Kong (35,396) Finland (32,822) Australia (32,127) UK (31,585) Sweden (31,264) France (30,150)
Business as usual is not sufficient; We must decisively move towards a Knowledge Based Economy Growth depends less on capital and labour accumulation than on efficient use of these factors (Total Factor Productivity). We need to move from static comparative advantages linked to natural resources to a stage where the incorporation of more knowledge into products and services is crucial. In brief - the capacity to transform knowledge into wealth, the capacity to INNOVATE.
Are we prepared? Over the last decade TFP contribution has fallen dramatically…and forecasts are frightening. TFP would account for less than 25% of Chiles growth in the 2007-2011 which compares poorly with the figure for competing economies (40% to 50% according to The Economist Intelligence Unit) GrowthTFPCapitalLabour 1984-1997 184.108.40.206.2 1998-2005 220.127.116.11.4 CHILE Selected countries* * Bálticos, Europa del Este y países de rápido crecimiento de Asia. TFP contribution to growth 2007-2011
Three decisions to move forward Innovation 1.Increasing public funding to support the strategy (new mining tax). 2.R & D tax incentive for companies. 3.Creation of a National Innovation Council for Competitiveness – National Innovation Strategy To propose a roadmap for a development process based on competitiveness supported by human capital and knowledge. To look after policy coherence Defining strategic objectives Defining the roles of agents Resource allocation aligned with the strategic priorities
INNOVATION STRATEGY HUMAN CAPITAL R&D strategycally oriented BUSINESS INNOVATION (value creation) BUSINESS INNOVATION (value creation) EFFICIENT INSTITUTIONALITY (long term vision, accountability, regionally focused) SELECTIVITY Focus on economic clusters COMPETITIVENESS
Selectivity: focus on clusters 0.00 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.13 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.17 18.104.22.168.22.214.171.124.126.96.36.199.188.8.131.52.34.5 Horticultura primaria Metalurgia Consultoría Farmacéutica Medicina especializada Bovino y ovino Industrias creativas Serv.medio ambiente Acuicultura Silvicultura Comercio minorista Outsourcing Turismo 1 Porcicultura y avicultura Celulosa y papel Productos de madera Educación superior Comunicaciones Vitivinicultura Logística y transporte Plástico Fruticultura primaria Minería del cobre y subproductos Construcción Lácteo Alto Bajo Medio Potencial de crecimiento (%) Servicios financieros Plataforma de negocios para LA Industria química Minería no metálica Alimentos procesados de consumo humano Sectores que se destacan 1 billón de pesos Crecimiento PIB en 10 años Esfuerzo para lograr la competitividad necesaria Medio Bajo Alto Alimentosproc. para consumo animal (1)Dentro del sector de Turismo fue considerado elsubsectorde Turismo de Intereses Especiales, que tiene un dinamismo mucho mayor que el sector de Turismo tradicional
Consolidate a business system aimed at the creation of value by means of innovation – in all its forms and aspects – as a competitiveness strategy in global markets. BUSINESS INNOVATION To establish an accessible and top-quality life-long-learning system which allows the country to rely on the relevant human capital the Knowledge Economy requires Human Capital Human Capital Strengthen a platform for the creation, dissemination and application of knowledge in a permanent and consistent research effort coherent with the countrys productive and social problems. Science with strategic orientation
Most participants in training come from big companies … Source: SENCE and CASEN Survey 2003
LLL drivers and issues (1) High coverage in initial education but low quality of learning outcomes (TIMMS, PISA, etc.) A significant % of adult population without initial education lacking basic skills Students lacking academic and employability skills for a friendly school-to-work transition Increasing demand for post-secondary learning opportunities: education seen as the vehicle for social mobility (high private returns, etc.) Expansion of the market of post-secondary ed. and training providers (esp. private universities) but no public information about graduates labor market outcomes Concern about quality and relevance of programs, accreditation frameworks still to be piloted
Disjointed systems providing LLL and training opportunities, Public effort on training limited to a tax incentive for companies; no funding arrangements for individual workers. Vocational education not well funded by government: poor quality and relevance for industry A significant amount of (competent) workers without formal recognition for their skills Lack of a shared vision and agenda among ministeries relevant for LLL: education, labour, economic development. LLL drivers and issues (2)
Adult education, technical-vocational education, workforce training and career guidance systems seen as missing pieces in the 90s reforms Learning outcomes and not only inputs and processes as the best approach once universal coverage is achieved Lack of a coherent public policy on vocational education (both secondary and postsecondary) LLL drivers and issues (3)
Strategy Main purpose: design and piloting new arrangements, capacities and funding mechanisms supporting LLL Multisectorial: Min of Education; Min Labour & Social Affairs; Min of Economic Development; Industry Associations; companies Combination of remedial actions; learning innovations; institutional innovations; demostrative projects Diverse clientele: adults with low educational attainment (unemployed / bad jobs); young people attending VE; Workforce
NATIONAL LABOUR COMPETENCY SYSTEM Industry Endorsed Competency Standards Competency Assessment & Certification System Labour Market Intermediation / Information Services HR Management (recruitment, selection, performance appraisal, training, sucession plans, rewards, etc.) Technical Vocational Education (secondary, postsecondary) National Training System A systemic view from the National Competency System
1.Seleccionar e Identificar Sector Productivo 2.Movilizar Actores Claves 3.Definir Estándares 4.Validar Estándares con Actores Claves 5.Adaptar Currículum y Formación según Estándares 6.Evaluar y Certificar Trabajadores 7.Promover y Difundir 8.Actualizar Estándares según Necesidades MANTENIENDO LA VENTAJA COMPETITIVA 1.Seleccionar e Identificar Sector Productivo 2.Movilizar Actores Claves 3.Definir Estándares 4.Validar Estándares con Actores Claves 5.Adaptar Currículum y Formación según Estándares 6.Evaluar y Certificar Trabajadores 7.Promover y Difundir 8.Actualizar Estándares según Necesidades MANTENIENDO LA VENTAJA COMPETITIVA SELECT AND IDENTIFY INDUSTRY KEEPING THE COMPETITIVE EDGE DEFINE OCCUPATIONAL AND EMPLOYABILITY SKILLS STANDARDS VALIDATE STANDARDS WITH STAKEHOLDERS ADAPT CURRICULA AND TRAINING TO STANDARDS EVALUATE AND CERTIFY WORKERS / STUDENTS PROMOTE AND DISSEMINATE UPDATE STANDARDS AS NEEDED MOBILIZE STAKEHOLDERS Where we stand 15 economic sectors 500 occup standards, + employability skills models (8 competencies) + entrepreneurship skills Methodology transfer to 300 VET providers 40.000 workers certified Employability skills for 7.000 students -Web site competency standards -New regulation -Media coverage 15 industry specific associations, 150 leading companies
Where do we stand against the LLL agenda? Several pilots and demostrative projects articulating supply and demand at a regional level. Impact evaluation going on (WB). Some of the regulations needed in place or in final stage of approval (ie National Competency System) Competency movement underpinning curriculum development in most higher institutions across the country. Modules and Competency Based VET Programs being developed. National Agenda for Innovation and Competitiveness, a new driving force for LLL in the country, as far as it supports human capital in strategic economic clusters
Current issues Competing policy agendas still a problem: M.Education too busy with the unfinished school reform and M.Labour with the pension reform and persistent youth unemployment A new policy for secondary and postsecondary TVET Qualifications framework informing pedagogical innovation and new learning materials Quality framework for QA and accreditation Diversifing funding mechanisms for learners beyond initial education Innovation in education & training.
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