Presentation on theme: "Fostering elementary school students’ understanding of simple electricity by combining simulation and laboratory activities Adviser: Ming-Puu Chen Presenter:"— Presentation transcript:
Fostering elementary school students’ understanding of simple electricity by combining simulation and laboratory activities Adviser: Ming-Puu Chen Presenter: Li-Chun Wang Jaakkola, T. & Nurmi, S. (2008). Fostering elementary school students’ understanding of simple electricity by combining simulation and laboratory activities. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24, 271-283.
2AbstractPurpose: Investigate if it would be more beneficial to combine simulation and laboratory activities than to use them separately in teaching the concepts of simple electricity.Results: The simulation–laboratory combination environment led to statistically greater learning gains than the use of either simulation or laboratory activities alone, and it also promoted students’ conceptual understanding most efficiently. The results highlight the benefits of using simulation along with hands-on laboratory activities to promote students’ understanding of electricity. Suggestions: In order to promote conceptual change, it is necessary to challenge further students’ intuitive conceptions by demonstrating through testing that the laws and principles that are discovered through a simulation also apply in reality
3 Introduction Students build new ideas in the context of their existing conceptual framework. Students acquire these intuitive conceptions from their everyday experiences and language These intuitive conceptions are often –poorly articulated, internally inconsistent and highly context- dependent, they offer tremendous explanatory power for the students (Lee & Law 2001; Planinic et al. 2006). –very resistant to change and easily interfere with students’ abilities to learn correct scientific principles Therefore, learning of complex science issues often requires –Acquisition of new knowledge –Changes in students’ deeply entrenched intuitive conceptions –This kind of learning is referred to as conceptual change
4Introduction One promising method of promoting conceptual change in science learning is inquiry-based –it involves a process of actively exploring some realistic phenomena Asking questions Generating testable hypotheses Making discoveries Rigorously testing Evaluating the plausibility of those discoveries in the search for new understanding (de Jong 2006) Hennessy et al. (2006) have argued that the development of a theoretical understanding of complex phenomena (such as electricity) through practical manipulation can be problematic –in many cases students can only see what is happening on the surface level –while being unable to grasp the underlying processes and mechanisms that are invisible in natural systems and important for theoretical understanding (e.g. current flow).
5Introduction Simulations provide a safe and customizable learning environments in which students can perform –Experiments virtually by setting up different circuits, –Changing circuit variables (such as resistance), –Observing the outcomes of their actions (e.g. change in voltage). In contrast to a laboratory working, a simulation can also –Reveal processes or abstract laws that are invisible in natural systems –Reduce the cognitive demands of physical laboratory experiments –Promoting conceptual change (Tao & Gunstone 1999; Zacharia & Anderson 2003; Blake & Scanlon 2007)
6Introduction A simulation may oversimplify complex systems (Crook, 1994). Moreover, students do not always believe that the laws and principles that a simulation demonstrates will also apply in the real world (Couture 2004). Simulations are not enough, and more authentic, stronger experiences may be needed to overcome the emotional barriers related to the processes of conceptual change (Merenluoto & Lehtinen 2004; Sinatra & Mason in press). As a solution, combining and linking simulation activities with concrete hands-on activities may increase the creditability of the simulations.
7 Learning environment –Laboratory environment –Simulation environment –Combination environment Instructional support: Worksheet –Requested and guided students to construct various circuits and conduct various electrical measurements. –Instructional questions –Take notes regarding their observations and then write down their answer on the worksheet. Methods
9 Results There was significant pre-test–post-test (basic) development within each learning environment The students working in the combination environment outperformed the students working in the laboratory environment in all three posttest scores with clear margin. They also outperformed the students in the simulation environment in post-test advanced and total scores but not in the post-test basic points.
10 Discussion The simulation offered two distinctive features that appeared to have critical impact on students’ conceptual development: – it provided students with an idealized model of a circuit, and visualized circuit functioning; –the students possessing the most intuitive conception in the pre-test were predominantly able to overcome these misconceptions during the intervention in the simulation and combination environments, The simulation provided students with a clear and informative learning environment, it was also important for students to obtain experience with real circuits The combination of simulation and laboratory exercise can bridge the gap between theory and reality.