2 Standard/ElementsSS7G The student will discuss environmental issues across the continent ofAfrica.Explain how water pollution and the unequal distribution of water impacts irrigation, trade, industry, and drinking water.Explain the relationship between poor soil and desertification in Sub-Saharan Africa.Explain the impact of desertification on the environment of Africa from the Sahel to the rainforest.
3 Essential questionsWhat is the impact of water pollution and the unequal distribution of water on irrigation, trade, industry, and drinking water?How do poor soil and deforestation distress Sub-Saharan Africa?What is the impact of desertification on the environment of Africa from the Sahel to the rainforest?
4 Polluted Water in Africa Every year many people die in Africa from drinking polluted water.It is estimated in some parts of Africa a million children a year die from drinking and bathing in unclean water.Many organizations collect donations to buy equipment to give to Africans so they can clean the water they will drink.
5 Polluted water also kills fish and animals, harms the soil, and ruins beaches.
6 Not Enough waterNot only is the water polluted in areas of Africa, but there is not enough of it!Many times women and children walk to streams for their water and carry it back home in a bucket.Even though there may be areas in Africa that have enough water, the demand is greater than the supply.
7 Why is there not enough water? Climate change, deforestation, and population growth all contribute to the imbalance of available water.The desert areas are growing so less water is available there.More people are moving to the cities so now the need for more water is increasing in the cities.Many areas are experiencing droughts.
8 What causes the polluted water? PesticidesFertilizersHuman wasteStorm water run-offMiningWaste water from factories which make manufactured goods
9 What are the governments doing about this? Many of the governments have many other problems to solve so they have neglected to provide clean water for their people.
10 Cause and Effects of Unequal Distribution of Water IssueCauseEffectNot enough water for irrigationProblems with tradeProblems with industryNot enough clean drinking water
11 Answers Issue Cause Effect Not enough water for irrigation Cities consume it and/or droughtsFarming suffers; people have less food to trade and eatProblems with tradeCountries with no coastline trade less (land-locked)Economy suffers; less economic growthProblems with industryIndustries need waterIndustries cannot manufacture products without waterNot enough clean drinking waterPeople and animals get sickHurts the economy
12 DeforestationNearly 90 percent of the coastal rainforests in west Africa have been cut down since the 1900s.In the 1990s 13 million acres ofAfrican forests have beenlogged, resulting in widespreaddeforestation.Define deforestation.
13 Deforestation= Problems in Agriculture When the trees are gone, nothing remains to hold the soil in place.As the winds blow soil is blown away and erosion occurs.When the soil erodes away important nutrients are blown and washed away.The suns bakes the exposed soil and plants have a difficult time growing.
14 Effects of Deforestation List some ways deforestation is very harmful to the people of Africa.Complete this flow chart:Deforestation _____ _____ ______
15 Desertification in Africa Did you know that thousands of years ago the Sahara Desert was a fertile area where animals grazed?What happened?Over time, climate changes and droughts turned this area into a desert. And the Sahara is growing!How does a desert grow? Turn and talk to your neighbor?
16 How does a desert grow?Poor farming practices, land clearing, and overgrazing of livestock has resulted in the spreading of the Sahara Desert in Africa.The Sahara is spreading south. What geographical area is being reduced in size because of this desertification?
17 The SahelThat is correct. The Sahel is growing smaller due to desertification.Why is the Sahel region important to the people of western Africa?The Sahel is also being reduced from the south.Farmers are using slash and burn techniques to cut down trees in the rainforest which is south of the Sahel.
18 Effects of Desertification What do you think will happen if the Sahel completely disappears?Define desertification in yourown words.