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Business Project Nicos Rodosthenous PhD 08/10/2013 1 08/10/20131Dr Nicos Rodosthenous.

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Presentation on theme: "Business Project Nicos Rodosthenous PhD 08/10/2013 1 08/10/20131Dr Nicos Rodosthenous."— Presentation transcript:

1 Business Project Nicos Rodosthenous PhD 08/10/ /10/20131Dr Nicos Rodosthenous

2 Formulating and clarifying the research topic 1.Introduction How to formulate and clarify your research topic and your research question. Before you start you need at least some idea of what you want to do. You will be able to choose the appropriate research strategy and data collection and analysis techniques. 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous2

3 Formulating and clarifying the research topic 2. Attributes of good research topic Meets the examining body’s standards and requirements It is at the correct level with issues link to theory. Choose your own topic with care, something you are really fascinated. i.e. Universities usually ask students: a) to collect their own data as part of their research project or 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous3

4 Formulating and clarifying the research topic b) to allow them to base their project on data that already been collected. Develop within the project frame the necessary research skills Is the research topic achievable within the available time? Is the research topic achievable within the financial resources? 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous4

5 Formulating and clarifying the research topic Able to gain access to data you require for the topic State your research questions and objectives clearly. Be able to provide fresh insights into this topic The findings of the research to be symmetrical i.e. the results will be of similar value whatever you find out. Does the research topic match your career goals? 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous5

6 Formulating and clarifying the research topic 3. Generating and refining research ideas More frequently used techniques for generating and refining research ideas are: a) Rational thinking  Examining your own strengths and interests  Looking at past project titles  Discussion  Searching the literature: articles in academic and professional journals, reports and books. 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous6

7 Formulating and clarifying the research topic b) Creative thinking  Keeping a notebook of ideas  Exploring personal preferences using past projects  Relevance trees  Brainstorming: 1) Define your problem 2) Ask for suggestions relating to the problem 3) Record all suggestions 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous7

8 Formulating and clarifying the research topic 4) Review all suggestions and explore what is meant by each. 5) Analyse the list of suggestions. Discuss example of Brainstorming c) Refining research ideas: the Delphi technique Using a group of people who either involved or interested in the research idea, you need: 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous8

9 Formulating and clarifying the research topic 1.Brief the members of the group about the research idea. 2. Encourage group members to seek clarification and more information 3. Ask each member to generate independently up to 3 specific research ideas 4. Collect the research ideas and distribute them to all members of the group. 5. Take comments on the research ideas and revise them in the light of what others said. 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous9

10 Formulating and clarifying the research topic 4. Turning research ideas into research projects 4.1 Writing research questions:  Avoid asking questions that are too difficult  Avoid asking questions that will not generate new insights  Consult your project tutor to avoid the pitfalls of too easy or too difficult questions  Your initial questions may flow from the relevant literature 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous10

11 Formulating and clarifying the research topic 4.2 Writing research objectives  Begin with a general focus research question.  That will generate more detailed research questions for the basis to write a set of research objectives. 4.3 The importance of theory in writing research questions and objectives  Theory is defined as “ a formulation regarding the cause and effect relationships between two or more variables, which may or may not have been tested” 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous11

12 Formulating and clarifying the research topic  Theory has a specific meaning. i.e. Marketing Manager believes that the introduction of loyalty cards by an airline will lead customers being less likely to travel with a competitor airline.  The purpose of examining relationships between two or more variables is to explain and predict these relationships. By doing A, B will happen, from theory to practice. 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous12

13 Formulating and clarifying the research topic  There is a difference between research and what is called intelligence gathering.  The latter is the gathering of facts, a part of a research, which is not enough.  Requirement for most assessed research projects is to:  Explain and compare phenomena  Analyse relationships  Predict outcomes 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous13

14 Formulating and clarifying the research topic 5. Writing your research proposal A plan usually includes: 1. the learning objectives, 2. the content, 3.the assessment strategy and 4.the recommended reading. Writing a research proposal is a crucial part of the research process. Either for research funding or for academic research, a great deal of time is needed. 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous14

15 Formulating and clarifying the research topic 5.1 The purpose of the research proposal 1. Organizing your ideas: Writing can be the best way of clarifying our thoughts and organize ideas into a coherent statement. 2. Convincing your audience: Ensure that the proposal your are planning to do is possible. If not, then you will have saved yourself a great deal of time and frustration. 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous15

16 Formulating and clarifying the research topic 3. Contracting with your “client” Acceptance of your proposal by a commercial client or your own organization is part of the contract. It also implies that your proposal is satisfactory. 6. The content of the research proposal: 1.Title: it may change as your work progresses. 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous16

17 Formulating and clarifying the research topic 2. Background:  This is an important part of the proposal.  It demonstrates your knowledge of the relevant literature  It shows the clear link between the previous work done and the content of the proposal. 3. Research questions and objectives:  Will indicate what is precisely the research seeks to achieve. 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous17

18 Formulating and clarifying the research topic  The objectives should precisely written and lead to the observable outcomes  Do not state general research aims 4. Method:  This with background sections will detail exactly how you intend to achieve your research objectives.  It will also justify your choice of method to be used for those objectives 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous18

19 Formulating and clarifying the research topic  The method can be divided into two parts: 1)research design and 2) data collection.  In the research design you will explain where you intend to carry out the research.  Explain the identity of your research population (i.e. managers, trade officials) and why you chose this population.  This section will also include the way in which you intend to carry out the research. 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous19

20 Formulating and clarifying the research topic  Based on a survey, interviews, examination of secondary data or combination of methods  i.e. by using a survey you should specify the sample size and clarify how the questionnaires will be distributed.  Include statement for ethical guidelines (e.g. National Health Service) 5. Timescale:  It will be useful to divide your research plan into stages 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous20

21 Formulating and clarifying the research topic  This will show what is possible in the timescale. 6. Resources:  Assess whether what you are proposing can be resourced (e.g. finance, data access, statistics, and equipment)  Conducting research costs money (e.g. for travel, data analysis, distribution and collection of questionnaires) 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous21

22 Formulating and clarifying the research topic  Assessors need to be convinced that you have access to the data you need for your research.  It is also important to have access to the necessary computer hardware and software to analyse your data. 7. References:  Avoid to impress your proposal reader with enormous list of references.  The literature sources which have been referred in the background section are considered enough. 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous22

23 Formulating and clarifying the research topic 7. Criteria for evaluating research proposals:  Research should include a study of the previous published research.  Can this research be made within the timeframe and with available resources?  Your research should be an exciting trip into the unknown 8. Case study: A student from Thailand returned home from the UK to complete his MA dissertation. 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous23

24 Formulating and clarifying the research topic 9. Summary:  The process of formulating and clarifying your research topic is the most important part  Attributes of a research topic do not vary and shall meet the requirements of the examining body  Generating and refining ideas makes use of a variety of techniques, like rational thinking and creative thinking. 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous24

25 Formulating and clarifying the research topic  Clear questions based on the relevant literature will act as a focus for the research  Research can be distinguished from intelligence gathering.  Writing a research proposal helps you to organise your ideas.  The content of the research should tell the reader what you want to do, why you want to do it, what you are trying to achieve and how do you plan to achieve it. 08/10/2013Dr Nicos Rodosthenous25


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