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Database Management Systems ISYS 464

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1 Database Management Systems ISYS 464
David Chao

2 Introduction to Databases
The most important component in an information system Created to support all levels of business operations: Day-to-day operations TPS, CRM, ERP Decision-makings DSS, data warehouse Strategic plans

3 Definitions Database: organized collection of logically related data
A group of related files Data: stored representations of meaningful objects and events Structured: numbers, text, dates Unstructured: images, video, documents Information: data processed to increase knowledge in the person using the data Metadata: data that describes the properties and context of user data

4 Example of Metadata

5 Traditional File-Based Systems
A collection of application programs that perform services for the end-users. Each program defines and manages its own data.

6 Example

7 Limitations of the File-Based Approach
Duplication of data Data inconsistency Limited data sharing Program-data dependence When file structure changed, all programs that access the file must be modified to conform to the new file structure. The definition of the data is embedded in the program. Fixed queries No facilities for asking unplanned, ad hoc queries

8 Problems with Program-Data Dependency
Each application program needs to include code for the metadata of each file Each application program must have its own processing routines for reading, inserting, updating, and deleting data

9 Example: Comma-Delimited File
It stores each data item with a comma separating each item and places double quotes around string fields. Student file with fields: SID, Sname, and GPA “S5”, ”Peter”, 3.0 “S1”, “Paul”, 2.5 Questions: How many students? What is average GPA?

10 Sequentially Accessing the Student File to Compute Average GPA
Dim fileNumber, stCounter As Integer Dim SID, SNAME As String Dim gpa, sumGpa As Double fileNumber = FreeFile() FileOpen(fileNumber, "c:\stdata.txt", OpenMode.Input) Do While Not EOF(fileNumber) Input(fileNumber, SID) Input(fileNumber, SNAME) Input(fileNumber, gpa) sumGpa += gpa stCounter += 1 Loop MessageBox.Show(sumGpa / stCounter.ToString)

11 Database Approach Central repository of shared data
The database holds not only the data but also a description of the data. System catalog (repository , data dictionary, or metadata) A central location where data descriptions are stored. Data about data Program-data independence

12 Advantages of the Database Approach
Program-data independence The separation of data descriptions from the application programs that use the data. Allows the data to change without changing the application programs. Planned data redundancy Improved data consistency Improved data sharing Enforcement of standards

13 Database Management System (DBMS)
A software that enables users to define, create, maintain, and control access to the database. Data Definition Language (DDL) Data Manipulation Language (DML) Control access: Security, integrity, concurrent access, recovery, support for data communication, etc. Utility services File import/export, monitoring facilities, etc. Support Ad Hoc queries

14 Database Management System
A software system that is used to create, maintain, and provide controlled access to user databases Order Filing System Central database Contains employee, order, inventory, pricing, and customer data Invoicing System DBMS Payroll System DBMS manages data resources like an operating system manages hardware resources

15 Evolution of DB Systems

16 Database Schema External Schema Conceptual Schema Internal schema
User Views Subsets of Conceptual Schema Conceptual Schema This level describes what data is stored in the database and the relationships among the data. View of the data administrator E-R models Internal schema Logical schema Underlying implementation and design Relational table design Physical Schema File organizations, indexes

17 Figure 2-7 Three-schema architecture
Different people have different views of the database…these are the external schema The internal schema is the underlying design and implementation

18 Data Independence Data independence means that upper levels are unaffected by changes to lower levels. Logical data independence Changes to the conceptual level, such as the addition of new entities, attributes, or relationships, should be possible without having to change the existing external level design. Physical data independence Changes to the physical level, such as using a different file organization, indexes, should be possible without having to change the conceptual level design.

19 Three-Level Example Employee Entity
Conceptual design: Employee entity with attributes: EmpID, EmpName, DateOfBirth, Salary, and Sex. Internal level: Logical schema: EmpID – 4 characters EmpName – 30 characters DateOfBirth – Date field 8 bytes Salary – Number(7,2) Sex – 1 character Physical schema: Record size = = 50 bytes Sequential file with index on EmpID field External level: EmpAgeView: EmpID, EmpName, Age=Year(Today()) – Year(DateOfBirth) EmpSalaryView: EmpID, EmpName, Salary

20 Benefits of Using Views
Views provide a level of security. Views provide a mechanism to customize the appearance of the database. Views provide a consistent, unchanging picture of the database, even if the underlying database is changed.

21 Database Application It is a program that interacts with the database at some point in its execution by issuing an appropriate request (typically an SQL statement) to the DBMS. Database programming

22 The Range of Database Applications
Personal databases: Desktop, PDA/Smart Phone Workgroup databases Departmental/divisional databases Enterprise database Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Integrate all enterprise functions (manufacturing, finance, sales, marketing, inventory, accounting, human resources) Data Warehouse Integrated decision support system derived from various operational databases

23 The three components in a database application
1. Presentation – user interface Menus, forms, reports, etc 2. Processing logic Business rules 3. Database

24 Categories of Database Applications
One-Tier Legacy online transaction processing PC database application Two-Tier client/server Client-based presentation. Processing logic is buried either inside the user interface on the client or within the database on the server, or both. Three-Tier, N- tier Processing logic is separated from the interface and database.

25 Database Server: A high processing power computer with advanced DBMS.
SQL queries Client Database Server Results Database Server: A high processing power computer with advanced DBMS. Client: A PC that runs database applications. SQL interface.

26 Client Functions Manages the user interface.
Accepts and checks syntax of user input. Implements business rules. Generates database requests and transmits to server. Passes response back to user.

27 Database Server Functions
Checks authorization. Accepts and processes database requests from clients. Ensures integrity constraints not violated. Performs query/update processing and transmits response to client. Provides concurrent database access, transaction management, and recovery control.

28 The Web as a Database Application Platform
Three-tier architecture Browser, web server, database server, processing logic Advantages: Cross-platform support Graphical user interface

29 Figure 2-9 Three-tiered client/server database architecture

30 Major Database Management Activities
Creating database Updating database Querying database

31 Creating Database Analysis Design
System analysis Data Flow Diagram, UML Data modeling ERD Design Maps the data model on to a target database model. Implementation: Efficiently store and retrieve data File organization and index

32 Two Approaches to Database and IS Development
SDLC System Development Life Cycle Detailed, well-planned development process Time-consuming, but comprehensive Long development cycle Prototyping Rapid application development (RAD) Cursory attempt at conceptual data modeling Define database during development of initial prototype Repeat implementation and maintenance activities with new prototype versions

33 Systems Development Life Cycle (see also Figures 2.4, 2.5)
Planning Analysis Physical Design Implementation Maintenance Logical Design


35 Updating Database Insertions, deletions, modifications
Update pattern: Insertion only, no modification Concurrent processing Read/Write Transaction management

36 Querying Database Relational algebra SQL QBE

37 New Developments in Database
Object-Oriented database Object-Relational database Decision support with data warehouse Web based database applications XML database

38 Course Overview An introduction to the three-level database
Conceptual level: Data modeling, ERD, Normalization Physical level: File organizations and index External level Relational algebra, SQL, QBE Other database management technologies

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