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Educational Methods The bag of tricks Direct Instruction/Lecture ä Advantages ä Teacher controlled ä Many objectives can be mastered in a short amount.

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Presentation on theme: "Educational Methods The bag of tricks Direct Instruction/Lecture ä Advantages ä Teacher controlled ä Many objectives can be mastered in a short amount."— Presentation transcript:


2 Educational Methods The bag of tricks

3 Direct Instruction/Lecture ä Advantages ä Teacher controlled ä Many objectives can be mastered in a short amount of time ä Lends to valid evaluations

4 Direct Instruction/Lecture ä Disadvantages ä Teacher controlled ä Student involvement is limited to the teacher ä Depends in part to rote learning (repetition from memory, often without meaning)

5 Direct Instruction/Lecture ä When to use? ä When the objectives indicate effectiveness ä When the teacher determines that it is the best use of time & effort

6 Six steps in Direct Instruction 1. Review previously learned material 2. State objectives for the lesson 3. Present new material 4. Guide practice with corrective feedback 5. Assign independent practice with corrective feedback 6. Review periodically with corrective feedback if necessary

7 1. Review previously learned material ä A short review before/with the new lesson’s interest approach ä Check & grade previous homework ä Put problems on the board (can be part of bell-work) ä Re-teach if necessary

8 2. State objectives for the lesson ä Students should know what is to be taught ä Stated Clearly ä Written on the board ä Handed out ä Follow the objectives ä Use them to develop evaluations

9 3. Present new material ä Your teaching depends on your analysis and preparation ä Organizing Content ä From general to specific ä From lower level objectives to higher ä From previous information to new material

10 3. Present new material ä Lectures ä Be aware of attention spans … _____ minutes (20) ä Be aware of the number of major points made … _____ (5) ä Be repetitious ä Review and summarize

11 3. Present new material ä Demonstrations ä Learning Activity, experiment, demonstration ä WOW em’! ä Allow students to practice immediately

12 4. Guided practice with corrective feedback ä Guided and independent practice ä Teacher controls & monitors guided ä Teacher evaluates & corrects independent ä Questions should be prepared in advance

13 5. Assign independent practice with corrective feedback ä Homework ä A formative step … not a summative step ä Worksheets

14 6. Review periodically with corrective feedback if necessary ä Check homework promptly ä Base new instruction on results ä Re-teach if necessary

15 Other Teaching Techniques Brainstorming Situations for use: ä Generate ideas (quantity is more important than quality) ä Students have some level of experience Planning Required: ä Formulate the question ä Plan for recording ideas

16 Brainstorming Steps ä Pose question to class ä Generate ideas with group ä Accept all ideas (do not criticize) ä Go back to summarize ä Discard “unacceptable” or unworkable ideas ä Determine the best solution(s)

17 Supervised Study ä Common technique used in problem solving instruction, but certainly not the only technique appropriate for problem solving instruction. ä Also a major technique used in competency-based education programs. ä Often misused technique. A really bad form of this technique is: Read the chapter in the textbook and answer the questions at the end of the chapter. ä Would be classified as an individualized instruction technique.

18 Supervised Study Situations Appropriate for Use ä Discovery or inquiry learning is desired ä Access to good reference materials (textbooks, extension publications, web resources, industry publications, etc.) ä Students may need to “look up” information ä May be alternate answers that are acceptable ä Many structured lab activities are actually a form of supervised study

19 Supervised Study Strengths: ä Provides skills in learning that are useful throughout students’ lives. They need to know how to locate and analyze information. ä Recall is enhanced when student have to “look up” information, rather than being lectured to. ä Students have to decide what information is important and related to the question posed. ä Opportunity for students to develop writing and analytical skills.

20 Supervised Study Weaknesses: ä Easy for students to get off-task. ä Students may interpret questions differently and locate incorrect information (practicing error). ä Unmotivated students will do the absolute minimum. ä Students tend to copy information from sources rather than analyze and synthesize information ä Requires more time than lecture ä Relies on students being able to read and comprehend information at the appropriate level

21 Supervised Study Procedures in Conducting Supervised Study: ä Teacher develops a list of study questions for students to answer. ä Resources and reference materials are located or suggested to students as possible sources of answers. ä Students are given time in class to find answers to the questions and to record the answers in their notes. ä Note: Due to time constraints, teachers may want to assign different questions to specific students, so that every student is not looking for the same information. ä Summary consists of discussing the correct answers to the questions with the entire class. ä Note: Teachers must be careful to emphasize that incorrect answers must be corrected.

22 Supervised Study Role of the Teacher: ä Develop a list of study questions that focus on the objectives of the lesson ä Develop the anticipated answers to the questions--it is important that the teacher have a firm idea of what are correct or incorrect answers. ä Establish time frame for completing the activity. Students need to feel a sense of urgency, so don’t give them more time than you think they will need. ä Supervise during this activity. NOT A TIME TO GRADE PAPERS, MAKE PHONE CALLS, PLAN FOR THE NEXT LESSON, OR LOCATE THE ANSWERS TO THE QUESTIONS IN THIS LESSON! ä Assist students in locating information, but do not find it for them. ä Keep students on task and eliminate distractions. ä Plan for reporting of answers

23 Small Group Discussion Also Called: ä Buzz Groups ä Huddle Groups ä Phillips 66 ä 6 people per group ä 6 ideas to be generated ä 6 minutes

24 Small Group Discussion Advantages: ä Increased participation ä Good for generating ideas ä Cooperative activity (students learn from each other)

25 Small Group Discussion Planning Required ä Clearly form the question or topic ä Develop a plan for grouping the students ä Plan for reporting ä Summarize the activity (what they should have learned)

26 Small Group Discussion Conducting Small Group Discussion ä Write question or topic on board or handout ä Give specific instructions on how the group will operate ä Establish time limits ä Circulate among the groups to help keep them on task (Not as a participant!) ä Give warning near end of time allocated ä Reports: Rotate among the groups for answers

27 Role Play Situations for use: ä Introducing a lesson ä Checking for understanding ä Summarizing

28 Role Play Planning Required: ä Script ä Minimum: key points to cover Steps: ä Role play Summary Tips: ä Keep it short ä Use to make a single point, not several points

29 Games Situations for use: ä Motivate students ä Reviews ä Check for understanding Strengths: ä Active learning technique ä Appeals to competitive students ä High interest level

30 Games Planning Required ä Game must be developed by teacher ä Rules must be established. Try to anticipate all potential situations that might occur. You do not want the effectiveness of the activity to be destroyed by arguments over rules. ä Develop a plan for determining teams ä Develop plan for keeping score ä Determine rewards--make them appropriate (usually very minor in nature)

31 Games Types: Games may take a variety of forms, but most often they are modeled after: ä TV game shows ä Sports ä Home board games

32 Field Trips and Resource Persons Situations for use: ä First hand experiences are needed ä Need expertise These appear to be different techniques, but the planning required is very similar

33 Field Trips/Resource Persons Planning Needed: ä Objectives ä Trial run/visit ä Special considerations (safety, grouping, etc.) ä Summarize (don’t give up responsibility!). It is critical to know what the students have learned from the activity. Tips: ä Provide advance organizers (report forms, fact sheets) ä “plant” questions among students ä assign students to begin the questions

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