Presentation on theme: "MOTIVATION Define and explain motivation"— Presentation transcript:
1MOTIVATION Define and explain motivation Distinguish between motivation and satisfactionDiscuss the process of motivationTypes of motivationDiscuss some leading theories of motivation
2MOTIVATION Some definitions Motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals- W.G.Scott.Motivation is the process of attempting to influence others to do your will through the possibility of gain or reward. – Edwin B. Flippo.Motivation is the need or drive within an individual that urges him towards goal-oriented action
3Motivation ≠ Satisfaction Motivation is Drive and Effort to satisfy a want or a goalSatisfaction is the Contentment experienced when a want is satisfied
4MOTIVATIONThe Motivation Process 1. Awareness of Need 2. Search for Action 3. Fulfillment of Need 4.Discovery of New Need
10MOTIVATION Non Financial Motivation Recognition Greater involvement in decision-makingResponsibilityChallenging jobPraise
11MOTIVATION Extrinsic Motivation Allowances Bonuses Fringe benefits Free housingMedical care
12MOTIVATION Intrinsic Motivation Status Authority Challenging job Participation in decision-making
13THEORIES OF MOTIVATION 1. Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory2. McGregor’s X andY Theories3. Ouchi’s Z theory4. Herzberg’s Two-factor theory5. McClelland’s Need theory6. Vroom’s Expectancy theory.7. Adelfer’s ERG theory
141. Douglas McGregor’s X and Y Theories Theory XTheory Y1. People, in general, dislike work. They avoid their duties and are basically lazy. 2. Most people are un-ambitious. They do not voluntarily accept any responsibility. 3. Most people lack creativity. They show no preference for learning anything new factors. 4. Satisfaction of physiological and safety needs alone is important for most people. Workers in general are only bothered about their salary, job security and such other extrinsic factors. 5. While at work, an employee needs to be closely supervised and watched.1. People are not averse to work. Given the proper working conditions the workers would do their work with the kind of enthusiasm. They show for their other activities like playing and eating.2. Workers are ambitious and they do come forward to accept responsibility. 3. Workers do have the potentials to be creative. If the management has a positive outlook, it will certainly encourage the workers to display their creative ideas and skills.4. It is not correct to assume that only satisfaction of physiological and safety needs are important for most workers. The workers do many things to have their ego satisfied. There are workers with tremendous potentials who want to work to their maximum capabilities.5. Workers need not be directed and closely supervised. They are good in what is called ‘self- direction’.
15CHARACTERISTICS OF THEORY X AND Y MANAGERS Theory X ManagersTheory Y ManagersHave little regard for peopleTend to be very authoritarianGenerally unlikely to motivate anyone to work willingly and wellPay attention to individual needsUnlikely to be authoritarianBoost morale of workers through incentives and rewards
162. MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS THEORY Maslow’s Need Hierarchy TheoryHuman behaviour is directed towards the satisfaction of certain needs.Physiological Needs(ii) Safety Needs(iii) Social Needs(iv) Esteem Needs and(v) Self-actualization Needs
19Hierarchy of NeedsPhysiological NeedsFoodClothingShelter
20Hierarchy of Needs Safety Needs Security of job / employment; resources; family; property; healthProtectionLaw and order
21Hierarchy of NeedsSocial NeedsFriendshipAssociationAffectionLove
22Hierarchy of Needs Esteem Needs Ego Status Recognition Self respect by others
23Hierarchy of Needs Self –Actualization Needs The need to achieve our full potential
243. HERZBERGS TWO FACTOR THEORY Herzberg, a clinical psychologist and pioneer of “job enrichment,” developed his motivation theory during his investigation of 200 accountants and engineers in the USA.
25Two Factor Motivational Theory People are influenced by two factors:Hygiene factors are needed to ensure an employee does not become dissatisfied. They do not lead to higher levels of motivation, but without them there is dissatisfaction.Motivation factors are needed in order to motivate an employee into higher performance. These factors result from internal generators in employees.
26Two-Factor Motivational Theory Examples of “Hygiene” Needs or Maintenance FactorsThe organization, its policies & administrationKind of supervision (leadership & management, including perceptions)Relationship with supervisorWork conditions (including ergonomics)SalaryStatusJob securityInterpersonal relations
27Two Factor Motivational Theory Hygiene NeedsPeople will strive to achieve “hygiene” needs because they are unhappy without them, but once satisfied, the effect soon wears off – satisfaction is temporary. (Chapman)Parallels with Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Motivational Model
28Two Factor Motivational Theory True MotivatorsAchievementRecognition for achievementWork itself (interest in the task)ResponsibilityGrowth and advancement