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Why are they historically significant?

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Presentation on theme: "Why are they historically significant?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Why are they historically significant?
The Mongols “The Mongols made no technological breakthroughs, founded no new religions, wrote few books or dramas” Why are they historically significant?

2 To Compare… Imagine if… “the U.S., instead of being created by a group of educated merchants and wealthy planters, had been founded by one of its illiterate slaves, who, by the sheer force of personality, charisma, and determination, liberated America from foreign rule, united the people,…invented a new system of warfare, marched an army from Canada to Brazil, and opened roads of commerce in a free-trade zone that stretched across the continents.” – Jack Weatherford in Genghis Khan

3 A Quick Background… Nomads Genghis Khan chosen leader Need water
Lead conquest looking for rain water Found the greatest opportunity was trade → horses

4 Who Are the Mongols? Declared themselves descendants of Huns
Founded 1st steppe empire Called “Tartars” Means “people from hell” Mongols not originally part of Tartars Killed many Many rose to prominence Became synonymous with Mongols

5 Adaptation of local societies/talents Timing
What were the key factors that allowed fewer than 125,000 nomadic warriors to build the largest empire in world history? Military prowess Adaptation of local societies/talents Timing Fragmentation of postclassical states

6 Impact of the Mongols The Mongols created a single economic, cultural, and sociological world system Mongol Exchange New methods of warfare Trade from Venice to Beijing and beyond Cultural diffusion

7 Chronology of the Mongol Empire
1206 – 1227 Reign of Genghis Khan 1211 – 1234 Conquest of Northern China 1219 – 1221 Conquest of Persia 1237 – 1241 Conquest of Russia 1258 Capture of Baghdad 1264 – 1279 Conquest of Southern China

8 Temujin: Leader of the Mongols
Temujin (aka Genghis Khan) Mastered the art of steppe diplomacy which called for: Displays of personal courage in battle Combined with intense loyalty to allies A willingness to betray others to improve one’s position The ability to entice other tribes into cooperative relationships Was responsible for bringing together all Mongol tribes into a single confederation

9 Wise words from Genghis Khan
“Man’s greatest joy is in victory: to conquer one’s enemies, to pursue them, to deprive them of their possessions, to make their beloved weep, to ride on their horses, and to embrace their wives and daughters…”

10 Strong Equestrians and Archers
Mongols were oriented around mobility Kept horses with them Drank their blood to stay alive Traveled up to 62 miles/day Elaborate priority mail system Messages traveled across Eurasia Mongol archers were very deadly and accurate Arrows could kill enemies at 200 meters (656 ft)

11 Mongol War Equipment Protective shield Armor Undergarments Weapons
Lacquered leather Armor Overlapping iron Undergarments Silk Wool Weapons Battle axe Scimitar Lance Re-curved

12 Psychological Warfare
Fake retreats combined with horse archers Slaughtered few cities Scared others to surrender without fight Smarts > Bravery Spared those who surrendered without resistance Resistance led to ruthless slaughter Used human shields Put on the front line of their army

13 Genghis Khan In 25 years, subjugated more land and people than the Romans did in 400 years Destroyed LOTS of ‘less important cities’ to funnel commerce into routes that his army could more easily supervise and control Often along less accessible trade routes

14 Genghis Khan Cont’d Valued individual merit & loyalty
Fighting wasn’t honorable, winning was Used any means necessary Conscripted peasants Refugees preceded Mongol attacks LOVED negative PR Allowed and encouraged true and false stories Fought on the move

15 Khan’s Innovations Perfected siege warfare
Used resources vs. supply train Ensured support for fallen soldiers Reorganized army Mix of tribal/ethnic people that lived and fought together Transcended kinship, ethnicity, and religion Religious tolerance Postal system Writing system Abolished torture & insisted on rule of law Even he was accountable for these laws

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