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Unit 5 Agriculture Importance of AG Importance of AG Everyone dependent on foodEveryone dependent on food AG occupies more land area than any other econ.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 5 Agriculture Importance of AG Importance of AG Everyone dependent on foodEveryone dependent on food AG occupies more land area than any other econ."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 5 Agriculture Importance of AG Importance of AG Everyone dependent on foodEveryone dependent on food AG occupies more land area than any other econ activityAG occupies more land area than any other econ activity AG employs 45% - almost half of world’s labor (in Africa and Asia over 50% are farmers)AG employs 45% - almost half of world’s labor (in Africa and Asia over 50% are farmers) W/out AG you could not have any cities or urban areasW/out AG you could not have any cities or urban areas

2 AG – Intro cont’d AG practices = one of the most fundamental differences between MDCs and LDCs AG practices = one of the most fundamental differences between MDCs and LDCs Big Questions…. Big Questions…. Where is AG distributed across the earth?Where is AG distributed across the earth? How does farming vary around the globe?How does farming vary around the globe? Why does farming vary across the globe?Why does farming vary across the globe?

3 Origins of AG AG: purposeful modification of earth’s surface to plant crops or raise livestock for human sustenance AG: purposeful modification of earth’s surface to plant crops or raise livestock for human sustenance AG began when humans domesticated plants and animals for useAG began when humans domesticated plants and animals for use Origins of AG predate recorded human historyOrigins of AG predate recorded human history

4 Origins of AG B/f AG = B/f AG =Hunter/gatherersocieties follow game and seasonal growth

5 1 st AG Revolution @ 10,000 yrs ago – late 18 th C @ 10,000 yrs ago – late 18 th C Domestication – conscious manipulation of plants/animals Domestication – conscious manipulation of plants/animals Invention of AG evolved slowly and over time through accident and experimentation Invention of AG evolved slowly and over time through accident and experimentation 1 st rev shifted people from hunt/gather to semi-sedentary 1 st rev shifted people from hunt/gather to semi-sedentary

6 1 st AG Rev – cont’d Carl Sauer – expert on 1 st Rev Carl Sauer – expert on 1 st Rev Occurred in time of plenty, not famineOccurred in time of plenty, not famine Multiple hearths occurred independently in several placesMultiple hearths occurred independently in several places Seed cultivation in Fertile Crescent (Iraq) - @ 10,000 yrs agoSeed cultivation in Fertile Crescent (Iraq) - @ 10,000 yrs ago Yams in hill country of SE Asia @ 10,000 yrs agoYams in hill country of SE Asia @ 10,000 yrs ago Root crops & corn in Mesoamerica (Mayans) @ 5,000 yrs agoRoot crops & corn in Mesoamerica (Mayans) @ 5,000 yrs ago Likely discovered by women by accidentLikely discovered by women by accident

7 1 st AG Revolution – cont’d AG Diffusion: spread by relocation - migration & colonialism (Columbian Exchange) AG Diffusion: spread by relocation - migration & colonialism (Columbian Exchange) Today diff is hierarchical – starts in research centers of MDCs moves to smaller farms or LDCs Today diff is hierarchical – starts in research centers of MDCs moves to smaller farms or LDCs Diff can be bad/accidental (ex: kudzu = the vine that ate the South) Diff can be bad/accidental (ex: kudzu = the vine that ate the South)

8 AG Diffusion – Columbian Exchange – relocation diff

9 AG diffusion – accidental - kudzu

10 2 nd AG Revolution Began in W. Eur in 1600s – transformed W. Eur and N. America Began in W. Eur in 1600s – transformed W. Eur and N. America Intensified AG by promoting higher yields per acre and per farmer Intensified AG by promoting higher yields per acre and per farmer Used crop rotation, fertilizers, improved collars for draft animals Used crop rotation, fertilizers, improved collars for draft animals Farmers create surplus, people can live in cities and buy AG products at market Farmers create surplus, people can live in cities and buy AG products at market Move from rural to urban Move from rural to urban

11 2 nd AG revolution – cont’d Late 1700s = Industrial Revolution – mechanization Late 1700s = Industrial Revolution – mechanization Tractors, reapers, threshers replaced human laborTractors, reapers, threshers replaced human labor Better transportation – RR, steamboats, refrigerated cars, etc. allows farmers to ship food products further to urban marketsBetter transportation – RR, steamboats, refrigerated cars, etc. allows farmers to ship food products further to urban markets

12 2 nd AG rev – cont’d – Ind Rev Transportation Transportation Revolutions – increase market area for farmers’ produce

13 3 rd AG Rev = Green Rev – 1940s-1960s MDCs transfer techn to LDCs MDCs transfer techn to LDCs Main practices: Main practices: Artificial fertilizerArtificial fertilizer IrrigationIrrigation Insecticides and pesticidesInsecticides and pesticides Mechanical machineryMechanical machinery Crossbreeding/hybridization (naturally not in a lab)Crossbreeding/hybridization (naturally not in a lab) ….all produce higher yields….all produce higher yields

14 3 rd Rev / Green Rev Multinational Corp encourage LDCs to focus on specialty crops – monoculture for export instead of producing food for local consumption Multinational Corp encourage LDCs to focus on specialty crops – monoculture for export instead of producing food for local consumption Was successful in some LDCs but detrimental in others (new tech devastated land, bad for env, unsustainable farming, and changes in social and culture structures Was successful in some LDCs but detrimental in others (new tech devastated land, bad for env, unsustainable farming, and changes in social and culture structures

15 Today and the Future….. High tech AG and Agribusiness Computerized irrigation, remote sensing, long-term weather predictions, GMO’s Computerized irrigation, remote sensing, long-term weather predictions, GMO’s GMOs: genetically modified foods – genes altered in a lab for disease resistance, increased productivity, increased nutritional value GMOs: genetically modified foods – genes altered in a lab for disease resistance, increased productivity, increased nutritional value BIG debate…U.S. pro – feed developing world; Europe anti – Franken foodBIG debate…U.S. pro – feed developing world; Europe anti – Franken food

16 GMOs

17 Today and Future…. Agribusiness: multinational giant corporations dominate much of world’s AG market Agribusiness: multinational giant corporations dominate much of world’s AG market demise of family farm demise of family farm AG is BIG, expensive business (control land, tech, machinery, shipping, packaging, etc.)AG is BIG, expensive business (control land, tech, machinery, shipping, packaging, etc.) Globalization of AG: free trade, WTOGlobalization of AG: free trade, WTO

18 Geog looks at WHAT crops are produced around the globe….affected by……. Environment: (Environmental Determinism)…rice needs lots of water, grapes need cool wet winters and hot dry summers, etc. Possibilism…green houses, irrigation Environment: (Environmental Determinism)…rice needs lots of water, grapes need cool wet winters and hot dry summers, etc. Possibilism…green houses, irrigation Culture: rice in Asia, corn in MX, wheat in US/Eur, no pork in Middle East, etc. Culture: rice in Asia, corn in MX, wheat in US/Eur, no pork in Middle East, etc.

19 What crops produced where… Economic: grow crop that makes greatest profit (von Thunen) Economic: grow crop that makes greatest profit (von Thunen)

20 Geog looks at HOW crops grown Labor intensive – lots of people and few tools V. Capital Intensive – little human labor, but tools, machinery Labor intensive – lots of people and few tools V. Capital Intensive – little human labor, but tools, machinery Intensive AG- greater yields off smaller areas (future of farming as AG land is lost V. Extensive AG – needs lots of land, not efficient (wide spread ranching) Intensive AG- greater yields off smaller areas (future of farming as AG land is lost V. Extensive AG – needs lots of land, not efficient (wide spread ranching)

21 HOW crops grown – cont’d Intensive/extensive and capital intensive/labor intensive spectrums are independent of each other…..examples? Intensive/extensive and capital intensive/labor intensive spectrums are independent of each other…..examples? Subsistence AG (LDCs) V. Commercial AG (MDCs) …see handout Subsistence AG (LDCs) V. Commercial AG (MDCs) …see handout

22 AG Regions in LDCs 1.Shiftng Cultivation: in rainforests 1.Shiftng Cultivation: in rainforests Slash and Burn: clear land by slashing vegetation and burning debrisSlash and Burn: clear land by slashing vegetation and burning debris Swidden: land that’s been cleared for farmingSwidden: land that’s been cleared for farming Land often owned by village not indiv.Land often owned by village not indiv. Cannot support dense populationsCannot support dense populations Soil depletes rapidly…leads to deforestationSoil depletes rapidly…leads to deforestation

23 AG in LDCs - Shifting cultivation – deforestation Shifting cultivation – deforestation

24 AG Regions in LDCs 2.) Pastoral Nomadism – nomadic herders 2.) Pastoral Nomadism – nomadic herders Dry mntn regions of Africa and Asia where harsh climate prevent plantsDry mntn regions of Africa and Asia where harsh climate prevent plants Herders cover wide area searching for food for herdHerders cover wide area searching for food for herd Transhumance – seasonal migrationTranshumance – seasonal migration Use animals - food, clothing, milk, skinsUse animals - food, clothing, milk, skins Type of animal varies depending on culture and physical region (i.e. camel, sheep, goat, horse, etc.)Type of animal varies depending on culture and physical region (i.e. camel, sheep, goat, horse, etc.)

25 AG in LDCs - Pastoral Nomadism Pastoral Nomadism

26 AG Regions in LDCs 3.) Intensive Subsistence 3.) Intensive Subsistence High yield for small area of landHigh yield for small area of land Densely pop areas of AsiaDensely pop areas of Asia Often w/ wet rice in AsiaOften w/ wet rice in Asia W/ wheat and barley in India and ChinaW/ wheat and barley in India and China Double cropping – 2 crops/harvests per yearDouble cropping – 2 crops/harvests per year Crop Rotation – preserves soil nutrientsCrop Rotation – preserves soil nutrients

27 AG Regions in LDCs 4.) Plantation Farming 4.) Plantation Farming Found in tropics/subtropicsFound in tropics/subtropics Large farm specializes in 1-2 cash crops (coffee, sugar, cotton)Large farm specializes in 1-2 cash crops (coffee, sugar, cotton) Often controlled/owned by MDCOften controlled/owned by MDC Labor comes from LDCLabor comes from LDC Crops exported for sale, not sold locallyCrops exported for sale, not sold locally

28 AG Regions in MDCs 1.) Mixed Crop/Livestock Farming 1.) Mixed Crop/Livestock Farming Western N. America, S. America, AustraliaWestern N. America, S. America, Australia Integrate crops and livestock – crops (soybeans and corn) fed to animalsIntegrate crops and livestock – crops (soybeans and corn) fed to animals Employ crop rotationEmploy crop rotation

29 AG Regions in MDCs 2.) Dairying: 2.) Dairying: Near large urban areas (NE United States, SE Canada, NW Eur)Near large urban areas (NE United States, SE Canada, NW Eur) Close to city b/c product perishable (esp milk…cheese & butter can come from further away)Close to city b/c product perishable (esp milk…cheese & butter can come from further away) Milk Shed how far out can supply milk w/out spoilingMilk Shed how far out can supply milk w/out spoiling These farms are expensive and labor intensiveThese farms are expensive and labor intensive

30 AG in MDCs – Dairy Farms

31 AG Regions in MDCs 3.) Grain Farming: wheat, corn, barley, oats, millet 3.) Grain Farming: wheat, corn, barley, oats, millet grains grown for human consumptiongrains grown for human consumption Sale to manufacturers for food production (cereal, bread, flour)Sale to manufacturers for food production (cereal, bread, flour) US – by far greatest exporter of grain (Great Plains = bread basket)US – by far greatest exporter of grain (Great Plains = bread basket)

32 AG in MDCs – grain farming

33 AG Regions in MDCs 4.) Livestock Ranching: 4.) Livestock Ranching: Commercial grazing of livestock (cattle – beef) over extensive areasCommercial grazing of livestock (cattle – beef) over extensive areas Big in western US (i.e. ranchers) and Argentina – semi-arid areasBig in western US (i.e. ranchers) and Argentina – semi-arid areas

34 AG Regions in MDCs 5.) Mediterranean AG 5.) Mediterranean AG Mediterranean climates of W. Eur, CA, ChileMediterranean climates of W. Eur, CA, Chile Variety of fruits and vegetables for human consumption – olives, grapes, avocadoes, nuts, etc.Variety of fruits and vegetables for human consumption – olives, grapes, avocadoes, nuts, etc. Olives and grapes = most valuable cash crops…..olive oil and wineOlives and grapes = most valuable cash crops…..olive oil and wine

35 AG in MDCs - Mediterranean

36 AG Regions in MDCs 6.) Truck Farming – commercial gardening and fruit farming 6.) Truck Farming – commercial gardening and fruit farming American SE – long growing season and humidAmerican SE – long growing season and humid Apples, tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, cherries, etc.Apples, tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, cherries, etc. “Truck” was a word for barter and these items were originally produced for local markets…today produced for large scale food processors“Truck” was a word for barter and these items were originally produced for local markets…today produced for large scale food processors

37 Truck farming Apples, squash, lettuce, cabbage, peppers, cucumbers, potatoes, peaches, tomatoes, green beans

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39 Issues for Commercial Farmers 1.) Access to markets – distance from market influences crop choice 1.) Access to markets – distance from market influences crop choice Von Thunen’s Model 19 th C Germany Von Thunen’s Model 19 th C Germany Noticed lands w/ same physical geog were being used for diff AG productsNoticed lands w/ same physical geog were being used for diff AG products Farmers consider 2 costs – land and transporting goods to marketFarmers consider 2 costs – land and transporting goods to market Land cost most expensive near market & decreases w/ distanceLand cost most expensive near market & decreases w/ distance

40 Von Thunen – cont’d Products w/ intensive land use, high transportation costs, and in high demand located near market (i.e. highly perishable items, bulky heavy items….dairy, fruits, veggies). These generate higher prices and farmers can afford more expensive land nearest market Products w/ intensive land use, high transportation costs, and in high demand located near market (i.e. highly perishable items, bulky heavy items….dairy, fruits, veggies). These generate higher prices and farmers can afford more expensive land nearest market

41 Von Thunen – cont’d Products in less demand, w/ more extensive land use or cheaper to transport are found further from market where land is cheaper (ranching, mixed farming, orchards) Products in less demand, w/ more extensive land use or cheaper to transport are found further from market where land is cheaper (ranching, mixed farming, orchards) Formula – can farmer make profit? Formula – can farmer make profit? P= V – (E + T) P= V – (E + T) Profit = commodity value – (production cost + transportation cost)Profit = commodity value – (production cost + transportation cost)

42 Von Thunen – cont’d The model = concentric rings coming out of market The model = concentric rings coming out of market 1. nearest, perishable items diff to transport (berries, milk, tomatoes)1. nearest, perishable items diff to transport (berries, milk, tomatoes) 2. forestry – wood heavy and diff to transport2. forestry – wood heavy and diff to transport 3. mixed farming – pigs, poultry3. mixed farming – pigs, poultry 4. wheat, barley, grains, livestock4. wheat, barley, grains, livestock

43 Von Thunen Model

44 Contemporary Variables of the Model? Modern transportation more efficient Modern transportation more efficient Transportation costs no longer proportional to distance Transportation costs no longer proportional to distance Wood (#2 forestry) no longer needed for fuel Wood (#2 forestry) no longer needed for fuel Technology has decreased permissibility (refrigerated cars, canning, etc.) Technology has decreased permissibility (refrigerated cars, canning, etc.) Model still relevant today????? Model still relevant today?????

45 Issues for Commercial Farmers - OVERPRODUCION Tech allows farmers to produce more than demanded (too much product, not enough profit) Tech allows farmers to produce more than demanded (too much product, not enough profit) Ex: US govnt pays 4 bill in cotton subsidies, farmers make 3 bill off crop Ex: US govnt pays 4 bill in cotton subsidies, farmers make 3 bill off crop Subsidies: govnt pays to produce less – spends @ 10 bill annually Subsidies: govnt pays to produce less – spends @ 10 bill annually Govn’t also buys surplus and donates to foreign countries Govn’t also buys surplus and donates to foreign countries

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47 Issues for Subsistence Farmers 1.) rapidly increasing pop – must feed more people on same land (GMOs?) 1.) rapidly increasing pop – must feed more people on same land (GMOs?) 2.) Trying to grow food for export for development and not just for consumption 2.) Trying to grow food for export for development and not just for consumption Strategies…. Strategies…. Expand land areas and increase productivity of land already in useExpand land areas and increase productivity of land already in use Identify new food sourcesIdentify new food sources When there is surplus, export, to bring in $$$When there is surplus, export, to bring in $$$

48 Future of Farming….. Intensive AG is replacing Extensive AG…generate more food on smaller plots of land Intensive AG is replacing Extensive AG…generate more food on smaller plots of land Ex: Feedlots: concentrate raising livestock in smaller space and use hormones and other fattening grains to prepare cattle for slaughter at a more rapid pace and in a smaller spaceEx: Feedlots: concentrate raising livestock in smaller space and use hormones and other fattening grains to prepare cattle for slaughter at a more rapid pace and in a smaller space

49 Future of Farming…. Biotechnology – techniques to modify living organism and improve plant and animal species and production (GMOs) Biotechnology – techniques to modify living organism and improve plant and animal species and production (GMOs) Agribusiness: includes food production, canning, refining, packing, etc. Agribusiness: includes food production, canning, refining, packing, etc. Little farmer goes out of businessLittle farmer goes out of business Transnational Corp – profit goes to companyTransnational Corp – profit goes to company Can get any fruit/fresh produce all over the globe at any time of yearCan get any fruit/fresh produce all over the globe at any time of year

50 AG and the Environment Negative impacts on Env Negative impacts on Env Pesticides (DDT) harm wildlife,Pesticides (DDT) harm wildlife, pollute lakes, rivers, etc. Erosion – loss of fertile topsoil –Erosion – loss of fertile topsoil – fertile topsoil accumulates slowly takes hundreds of yrs to rebuild takes hundreds of yrs to rebuild Salinization: soil in dry area isSalinization: soil in dry area is irrigated, water evaporates quickly and leaves salty residue Urban Sprawl: takes over goodUrban Sprawl: takes over good AG land

51 AG and the Environment Deforestation: slash and burn in rainforests (debt for nature swap – see article) Deforestation: slash and burn in rainforests (debt for nature swap – see article) Desertification: degradation of land…turns into desert b/c of extensive planting or grazing Desertification: degradation of land…turns into desert b/c of extensive planting or grazing Conclusion….greater tech often correlates w/ destruction of env. Conclusion….greater tech often correlates w/ destruction of env.

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54 RESOURCES Natural Resources: Natural Resources: Renewable: resources w/ a theoretically unlimited supply…env continues to replace them (i.e. soil, timber). Note – we can use renewable resources faster than they can reproduce themselvesRenewable: resources w/ a theoretically unlimited supply…env continues to replace them (i.e. soil, timber). Note – we can use renewable resources faster than they can reproduce themselves

55 Nonrenewable: cannot be replaced by nature; a finite supply that will be exhausted (minerals, coal, oil, copper)Nonrenewable: cannot be replaced by nature; a finite supply that will be exhausted (minerals, coal, oil, copper)

56 Fishing Accounts for 20% of human and animal protein consumption (higher in some countries) Accounts for 20% of human and animal protein consumption (higher in some countries) 3 Sources: 3 Sources: Inland catch – ponds, lakes – 7%Inland catch – ponds, lakes – 7% Fish Farms – controlled/contained environment – 32%Fish Farms – controlled/contained environment – 32% Marine catch – oceans – continental shelf – 100 miles out – 61%Marine catch – oceans – continental shelf – 100 miles out – 61%

57 Fishing Problems…. Over fishing – catch is surpassing reproduction rates – endangered supplies. Tragedy of the Commons - oceans = open seas, communal property, all take too much Over fishing – catch is surpassing reproduction rates – endangered supplies. Tragedy of the Commons - oceans = open seas, communal property, all take too much Pollution of coastal waters Pollution of coastal waters

58 Fishing Aquaculture: fish farming – breed fish in ponds, lakes, canals, or fenced off in coastal bays Aquaculture: fish farming – breed fish in ponds, lakes, canals, or fenced off in coastal bays Accounts for 30% of total fish harvest in recent yrsAccounts for 30% of total fish harvest in recent yrs Fastest growing sector of world economyFastest growing sector of world economy


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