Presentation on theme: "Middle Ages – The Crusades “God Wills It!”. Introduction “Crusades” were military expeditions sent by the Pope to capture the Holy Land from people called."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction “Crusades” were military expeditions sent by the Pope to capture the Holy Land from people called Muslim Turks. The Empire of the Turks included Palestine, the land where Christ was born. Several crusades (9 officially) between 1096 and 1291 failed to win the Holy Land, but nevertheless had important results for the people of Western Europe.
The Crusades 1. Defintion 2. Was the goal achieved? CausesEffects
Cause Muslim Turks captured Jerusalem and neighboring lands from the Byzantine Empire. –Pilgrims, people on religious journeys, traveled to the Holy Land. –Byzantine Empire said they were being attacked.
Cause Pope Urban II called a meeting of churchmen and feudal lords in 1095 A.D. –“Knights defeat the Turks.” –Feudal lords will stop fighting each other. –Increase his power and influence. –“God wills it!”
Cause Feudal lords had several reasons for going to the Holy Land. –Religious duty. –Gain wealth and land. –Adventure & Hero. –“God wills it!”
Cause Merchants, especially those from the Italian port cities of Venice and Genoa, backed the plans of the crusaders. –Provided ships. –Merchants hoped for increase in trade. –“God wills it!”
First Crusade = 1096 -1099 AD –Preachers convinced peasants to crusade, but most died. –Knights reached the Holy Land and captured Jerusalem. –“God wills it!”
Second Crusade =1147-1149 AD –Most Christians returned to Europe after the First Crusade. –Muslim Turks won back some land. –Kings of France and Germany were defeated. –“God wills it!”
Third Crusade =1189-1192 AD –Began when Jerusalem was recaptured by Muslim Turks. –Led by King Richard the Lion-Hearted of England, crusaders convinced the Turks to allow Christian pilgrims free travel. –“God wills it!”
Last 6 Crusades –Little or no success. –Children’s crusade. 30,000 young crusaders never reached the Holy Land and few ever returned home safely. “God wills it!”
Results of the Crusades The Holy Land remained under Muslim Turk control. Europeans learned how to build better ships and draw better maps. Trade increased between Western Europe and Asia re-opening old trade routes. –Towns and cities grew –Jobs increased –People became richer –Middle Class grew –Black Death – 1347 to 1351 = killed 1/3 Europeans killed The power of feudal lords declined as many lords were killed in battle while others spent all their money on military supplies and equipment. –King’s powers increased. –Peasants and Serfs became left fiefs and demanded more money The desire to travel increased among Europeans.
Essential Questions 1. What were the Crusades? 1. Crusades were military expeditions from 1096 to 1272 A.D. to recapture the Holy Land from Muslim control. 2. What caused the Crusades? 2. The crusades began when Muslims took control of the Holy Land, Pope Urban II called for the recapture of the Holy Land, Lords wanted more power, the Pope wanted more power for the Church, Italian Merchants wanted increased trade. 3. What occurred during the Crusades? 3. First Crusade Knights took control of Jerusalem, Second Crusade Muslims gained back land and some nobles returned home, Third Crusade Muslims gained back land, but Pilgrims were allowed safe travel, remaining Crusades had limited success. 4. What were the effects of the Crusades? 4. Several effects of the Crusades were: Holy Land remained under Muslim control, the Feudal system changed with the Lords losing power to Kings, trade and towns grew, map and ship making got better, travel increased.