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A Quest for the Holy Land

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1 A Quest for the Holy Land
THE CRUSADES A Quest for the Holy Land

2 Crusades A series of wars between European Christians and Muslims
From They fought over control of Jerusalem which was called the Holy Land

3 Jerusalem’s Importance
Jews: site of King Solomon’s Temple Christians: site of Christ’s death, resurrection (Church of Holy Sepulchre) Muslims: site of Muhammad’s ascension

4 Background Causes of Crusades
Christians had been going to Holy Land for centuries for pilgrimage, and Muslims never got in the pilgrims’ way Year 1000 brought an increase of pilgrims 1009: Al-Hakim (caliph) burns Church of Holy Sepulcher, but it’s re-built.


6 Immediate Causes of Crusades
Muslim Turks captured Jerusalem from the Byzantine Empire Muslim Turks less supportive of Christian pilgrims Christian pilgrims were attacked Byzantine Emperor (Alexius I) feared an attack on Constantinople

7 Pope Urban II and his call
Byzantine Emperor Alexius I asks Church for help against Turks 1095: Pope Urban II issues a call for a “holy” war, or Crusade, to capture back Jerusalem from Muslims Pope assured that those that died in Crusade will have a place in Heaven

8 Who Answered the Call? Feudal Lords Knights Peasants

9 The First Crusade (1096-1099) Peasant army Knights Untrained
Lacked military equipment Many killed by Muslim Turks Knights Succeeded in capturing Jerusalem

10 The Second Crusade ( ) Europeans fail to recapture a “Crusader state” of Edessa—accomplished nothing!

11 The Third Crusade ( ) 1187: Muslims recapture Jerusalem! Led by Saladin. Saladin treated fallen enemies, including Christians, with courtesy. Known as chivalrous. Christians’ led by Richard “the Lionheart”, King of England Despite war, eventually a truce with Saladin; Muslims kept control of Jerusalem, though Christians would be allowed in the city

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