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1 11 DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING E-GOVERNMENT POLICIES: THE CASE OF THE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY TRENTO 28-29 MARCH 2012 The social and economic value of public.

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Presentation on theme: "1 11 DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING E-GOVERNMENT POLICIES: THE CASE OF THE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY TRENTO 28-29 MARCH 2012 The social and economic value of public."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 11 DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING E-GOVERNMENT POLICIES: THE CASE OF THE PALESTINIAN AUTHORITY TRENTO 28-29 MARCH 2012 The social and economic value of public information Carlo Batini Universita degli Studi di Milano Bicocca carlo.batini@unimib.it The social and economic value of public information

2 Remark Slides with symbol will be deliberately skipped, they are left to provide further material 2

3 3 Public information and social and economic value Public Information Private Reuse Community Public service Back office Market Social value Economic value Open data

4 4 Public information and social value Public Information Private Reuse Community Public service Back office Market Social value Economic value Open data

5 Good policies for public information: lessons learned in Italy 5

6 6 1. Defining relevant types of data: Essential and personal data Essential data are those public data that are needed by citizens and businesses to exercise their rights or else to achieve desired functionings (beings and doings) E.g. Which law or laws discipline this aspect of my relationship with the Government? Personal data are those public data that are accessible to a single person or a circumscribed number of persons that have the right to access them E.g. where is my file for passport renewal?

7 7 Examples of essential data Mandelkern Report, France, 1995 Juridical data (laws, norms, etc.) Statistical data Geographical data Environmental data Metereological data Economic and Financial data Public Registries

8 8 2. The back/front offices as enabling technologies for establishing policies 2. The back/front offices as enabling technologies for establishing policies a.Technological architecture in the traditional interaction Back office Central PA Back office Local PA1 Back office Local PA2 Front office Central PA Front office Local PA1 Front office Local PA2 b. Technological architecture in the new interaction Common front office service oriented layer Common back office cooperative layer Internal information flows Back office Central PA Back office Local PA1 Back office Local PA2 Front office Central PA Front office Local PA1 Front office Local PA2 Data & Services Services

9 9 More on back office data b. Technological architecture in the new interaction Common front office service oriented layer Common back office cooperative layer Internal information flows Back office Central PA Back office Local PA1 Back office Local PA2 Front office Central PA Front office Local PA1 Front office Local PA2 Public Information Back office Community Open data Public Information

10 Example of enabling norm in Italy Law 340/2000 art. 25 comma 2 Public administrations have free access to data managed in public registries and documents, except personal data and documents, in which case they have to justify accessibility on the basis of the adherence of data to their administrations responsibility. 10

11 11 3. Data Governance initiatives: The same business as represented in three national registries AgencyIdentifierNameType of activity AddressCity Social Security CNCBTB765SDVCanned meat production of John Ngombo Retail of bovine and ovine meats 35 Niagara Street New York Social Assurance 0111232223John Ngombo salesGrocers shop, beverages 9 Rome Street Albany Chambers of Commerce CND8TB76SSDVMeat production in New York state of John Ngombo Butcher4, Garibaldi Square Long Island What shall we do? Data Governance, Data Governance, Data Governance!

12 164 91 161 520 162 163 MI, MT, MD 190 2 4 6 7 9 10 11 12 16 18 20 2425 27 35 3637 39 38 40 45 47 48 51 53 54 55 59 63 64 65 68 71 72 73 74 80 82 87 88 89 9396 97 98 101 104 105 108 110 120 131 137 153 160 171 165 173 174 180 501 506 507 515516 526 600 603 602 650 651 653 663 5 19 52 66 81 86 90 92 99 111 132 136 142 170 172 531 656 MAE, MF, MGG, MI, MIBCA, MLP, MLPS, MT, MTN, MCE, MD, MURST MAE, MURST, MPI MAE, MGG, MI MAE, MI, MLPS MF, MT MGG, MI, MIBCA, MT, MTN MI MI, MS 601 21 109 Individual School Justice Foreign affairs Work Pension Health and Assistance Revenue Politics Social life Retired Veteran Civil Disability Claiming civil disabilities Worker Unemployed Student Self-employed Employee Convict Taxpayer Foreigner Assisted Housewife Candidate Volunteer Italian Resident abroad Foreign With disability Condemned Waiting for sentence With scholarship Reported Belonging to Tax registry Taxpayer VAT office Land registry office member Town clerk Drug addict Reported drug addict Looking for new job Looking for first job Applicant for citizenship Applicant for visa 12 Central Administrations, Italy, 1995 Local Administrations Piedmont, 2003

13 Reference on Data Governance

14 14 More on open data b. Technological architecture in the new interaction Common front office service oriented layer Common back office cooperative layer Internal information flows Back office Central PA Back office Local PA1 Back office Local PA2 Front office Central PA Front office Local PA1 Front office Local PA2 Public Information Back office Community Open data Public Information

15 Open essential data must be free of charge 15

16 The Italian Official Journal year 2000 16

17 17 Cost of bank transactions Source: Belltech - America Economia, Nov. 19, 1998, p. 209

18 18 The paradox of the Italian Official Journal in 90s Source: Il Sole-24 Ore newspaper, nov. 2000 Paper editionElectronic edition Cost in liras per page 1 = 1880 liras

19 Outcome Italian Official Journal for free for the last 60 days Eurpean Official Journal for free fr the last 45 days 19

20 Open data must be of good quality (accurate, complete, current, etc.) 20

21 21 Applying data cleaning…… AgencyIdentifierNameType of activity AddressCity Social Security CNCBTB765SDVCanned meat production of John Ngombo Retail of bovine and ovine meats 35 Niagara Street New York Social Assurance 0111232223John Ngombo salesGrocers shop, beverages 9 Rome Street Albany Chambers of Commerce CND8TB76SSDVMeat production in New York state of John Ngombo Butcher4, Garibaldi Square Long Island

22 22 We improve data quality…… AgencyIdentifierNameType of activity AddressCity Chambers of Commerce CND8TB76SSDVMeat production in New York state of John Ngombo Butcher4, Garibaldi Square Long Island AgencyIdentifier Social Security CNCBTB765SDV Social Assurance 0111232223 Chambers of Commerce CND8TB76SSDV Certified copy Entity reconciliation

23 More on data quality…… 2006

24 Open data must be linked: linked open data 24

25 Linked Open Datasets on the Web May 2007 September 2008 July 2009 September 2011 25

26 Initially data are small disconnected clouds…… 26

27 First level: give addresses (URI) to data so that ……they are linked 27 http://www.dsfad.dd http://www.ffrrt.gf http://www.htread.dd http://www.grgad.dd http://www.httyud.dd http://www.ffoot.gf http://www.ffrrt.gf http://www.ffopt.gf http://www.fkurrt.gf http://www.jypt.gf http://www.bbbyud.dd http://www.cvbyud.dd

28 First level: give addresses (URI) to data so that ……they are linked 28 http://www.dsfad.dd http://www.ffrrt.gf http://www.htread.dd http://www.grgad.dd http://www.httyud.dd http://www.ffoot.gf http://www.ffrrt.gf http://www.ffopt.gf http://www.fkurrt.gf http://www.jypt.gf http://www.bbbyud.dd http://www.cvbyud.dd

29 Second level: data have to be provided with names (URN) in such a way to … 29 Sono prioritariamente inseriti nel ruolo di cui al comma 1 i dirigenti già inquadrati nelle soppresse tabelle allegate alla law august 23, 1988, n. 400, i dirigenti vincitori di concorso presso la Presidenza e i dirigenti con incarico di prima fascia. La collocazione dei dirigenti nella posizione soprannumeraria non comporta alcun pregiudizio giuridico, economico e di carriera. Capo I Gli organi del Governo Art. 1 Gli Organi del Governo - Formula di giuramento 1. Il Governo della Repubblica è composto del Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri e dei ministri, che costituiscono insieme il Consiglio dei ministri. 2. Il decreto di nomina del Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri è da lui controfirmato, insieme ai decreti di accettazione delle dimissioni del precedente Governo. Legislative decree December 5, 2003, n. 343 Law august 23, 1988, n. 400 ?

30 30 Assigning uniform names to Laws Uniform Resource Names (URN) Example Law 127, May 15, 1997 urn:state:law: 1997-05-15;127 Type of norm Date and number Issuing Authority

31 Second level: data have to be provided with names in such a way to make them linkable 31 Sono prioritariamente inseriti nel ruolo di cui al comma 1 i dirigenti già inquadrati nelle soppresse tabelle allegate alla law august 23, 1988, n. 400, i dirigenti vincitori di concorso presso la Presidenza e i dirigenti con incarico di prima fascia. La collocazione dei dirigenti nella posizione soprannumeraria non comporta alcun pregiudizio giuridico, economico e di carriera. Capo I Gli organi del Governo Art. 1 Gli Organi del Governo - Formula di giuramento 1. Il Governo della Repubblica è composto del Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri e dei ministri, che costituiscono insieme il Consiglio dei ministri. 2. Il decreto di nomina del Presidente del Consiglio dei ministri è da lui controfirmato, insieme ai decreti di accettazione delle dimissioni del precedente Governo. Legislative decree December 5, 2003, n. 343 Law, august 23, 1988, n. 400 state:law: 2003-12-05;343 state:law: 1988-08-23;400

32 Open data should have social value 32

33 Open data on www.il.data.govOpen data on www.il.data.gov (Illinois) 33

34 Social value – Economist October 2011 34

35 Who decides and How to decide the social value of data? Government? Final users? Reciprocal interaction among the two? Proposal: 1.PAs publish all types of data in its own infor- mation system that are potentially open data, 2.A third party certifies the correctness and completeness of the statement 3.Citizens decide priorities 35

36 Open data should be visible and geo-referenced 36

37 Map of rest areas in Illinois 37 Table Map

38 Open data should be reusable, so they should be changed into open services 38

39 From www.data.gov (March 20, 2012) PublicCollectivity 39

40 Example of App for open data 40

41 Popularity of applications 41

42 Economic value of information just the flavour… 42

43 Concepts to be related Information quality, namely accuracy, completeness,etc. Information structure, organization of data and operations on data Information diffusion, how information extracted from data is used in the organization Information capacity, how many different pieces of information can be extracted Information utility, how much available information is effective for the organization Information value, how much it is economically convenient to use ICT technologies to increase utility How to relate all of them together and with ICT (integration) technologies? 43

44 A Unified Model Information quality Information structure Information diffusion Information Value Publish&Subscribe technologies Application integration architectures Business process structure Set of Processes Data Integration technologies Accuracy, Completeness Data structure Information inte- gration architectures Set of DB schemas Query load Transaction load Information Capacity Information Utility Costs 44

45 Thank you! 45

46 Rests 46

47 47 Public information and social and economic value Public Information Private Reuse Community Public service Back office Market Open data

48 48 Public information and social and economic value Private Reuse Market Public Information Community Back office Open data Public information and social value

49 49 More on the back office b. Technological architecture in the new interaction Common front office service oriented layer Common back office cooperative layer Internal information flows Back office Central PA Back office Local PA1 Back office Local PA2 Front office Central PA Front office Local PA1 Front office Local PA2 Public Information Back office Community Open data Public Information

50 50

51 New York City 51

52 Freedom of Information Act – USA - 1966 Il Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), "atto per la libertà di informazione", è una legge sulla libertà di informazione, emanata negli Stati Uniti il 4 luglio 1966 dal presidente Lyndon B. Johnson, che impone alle amministrazioni pubbliche una serie di regole per permettere a chiunque di sapere come opera il Governo federale, comprendendo l'accesso totale o parziale a documenti classificati.informazioneStati Uniti4 luglio1966Lyndon B. JohnsonGoverno federale 52

53 53 Tipologie di dati essenziali (Rapporto Mandelkern, Francia, 1995) Dati giuridici (atti normativi, la giurisprudenza) Dati statistici Dati geografici Dati ambientali Dati meteorologici Dati economici e finanziari Registri

54 54 Back office Central PA Back office Local PA1 Back office Local PA2 Front office Central PA Front office Local PA1 Front office Local PA2 Transaparency Sustainability, efficiency and cost reduction Effectiveness of services Local Data bases Security and Privacy Social inclusion Local Document bases New technological model - 1 start from principles technologies are a tool, not an end 1. Seamless, secure interface 2. Cooperative Technological infrastructure 4. Central Data bases 4. Global Document bases 3.Internal information flows Users Information and service flows

55 55 Back office Central PA Back office Local PA1 Back office Local PA2 Front office Central PA Front office Local PA1 Front office Local PA2 Users Quality and integration of data and services Authentication and anonymity Interoperability of processes, data and flows Openness and Reuse Local Data bases Central Data bases Internal information flows Local Document bases Global Document bases Accessibility and user diversity adaptivity Main drivers of legal frameworks Seamless, secure interface Cooperative Technological infrastructure

56 56 Back office Central PA Back office Local PA1 Back office Local PA2 Front office Central PA Front office Local PA1 Front office Local PA2 Seamless interfaces Multichannel access Digital authentication Event notification infrastructure Interoperability and cooperation infrastructure Connectivity infrastructure Users Quality and integration of data and services Authentication and anonymity Interoperability of processes, data and flows Openness and Reuse Local Data bases Central Data bases Internal information flows Local Document bases Global Document bases Accessibility and user diversity adaptivity Reference model of the technological infrastructure

57 Example: the NormeinRete technological architecture XML markup + URNs Users Back office Central PA Back office Local PA1 Back office Local PA2 Front office Central PA Front office Local PA1 Front office Local PA2 Seamless interface: Search index + URN resolution Multichannel access Digital authentication Event notification infrastructure Connectivity infrastructure Internal information flows Local Document bases Central Registries Interoperability and cooperation infrastructure DTDs Names Norms Global Document bases Main principle addressed: transparency Main drivers: - interoperability - accessibility 57

58 58 Life cycle of a legal framework in a single country 1.When a technology is at its mature stage, produce a first draft 2.Experimentation in a small environment with safe-conduct 3.Updated draft and request for comments 4.Impact analysis 5.Enactment of the final document 6.Adequate period of time for procedures and infrastructure adjustment

59 59 XML markup + URNs Users Back office Central PA Back office Local PA1 Back office Local PA2 Front office Central PA Front office Local PA1 Front office Local PA2 Seamless interface: Search index + URN resolution Multichannel access Digital authentication Event notification infrastructure Connectivity infrastructure Internal information flows Local Document bases Example: the NormeinRete legal framework Central Registries Interoperability and cooperation infrastructure DTDs Names Norms Interoperability: Technical rules for URNs and XML formats Accessibility: W3G standards adopted

60 Traditional scenario…. Court of CassationOfficial Journal Publishers 60

61 …after Internet spreading… Central PALocal PAPublishers Judicial offices 61

62 ….new scenario Central PA Judicial offices Local PA Normeinrete 62

63 central registries Cooperative architecture names registry NIR-nodes directory norms catalogue administration i domain norms NIR-node administration j domain norms NIR-node NIR gateway NIR gateway NIR services indexing front-office channels search index searching URN resolution 63

64 64 Data referring to the same object are non integrated and heterogeneous Registry office Driver licence reistry Tax payers registry Payroll Health service registry Person Numerical code Fiscal code Fiscal code Driver Licence code Mnemonic code

65 Terzo livello: i links devono essere individuabili in modo che i dati siano interlinked 65 Income States Tax payer Boat Owns Find SSN of tax payers that States an income <= 10.000 and Own >= 1 Boats


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