Presentation on theme: "Byzantine Culture and Art Greek Orthodox Christianity."— Presentation transcript:
Byzantine Culture and Art Greek Orthodox Christianity
Greek Orthodox Church All Christianity (Catholicism, Orthodoxy, and Protestantism) emerged from the same origin. They just differ in the interpretations of the Bible, or doctrinal issues. These issues could be so serious that splits occurred. Orthodox means “right believing” in Greek. (Ortho – correct).
Differences Between the Catholics and the Eastern Orthodox 1.Greek Heritage – is prevalent in Orthodox Church. Latin fathers of the Christian Church rejected the Greek heritage because of its pagan origins, but Orthodox fathers incorporated it instead. 2.Lay (non-clergy) participation – lay people could become part of the Church hierarchy. Emperor was the head of the Church in Constantinople, was always a lay person (They were protectors of the Church). In Catholic Church, non-clergy person could never do that.
Differences (cont.) 3.Mysticism – a belief in the Eastern tradition that a person could reach a mystical connection directly with God. The Catholic Church stated that no person could have a direct connection, had to go to a priest. 4.Icons (holy images) – this became a very big problem between Catholics and Orthodox Christians. The icons were useful in that time because many people were illiterate and they could learn about God that way. It was considered inspirational for devotion to God.
Art and Architecture Greek Orthodox Christianity and imperial patronage enabled the Byzantine Empire to develop a unique style of art and architecture. Greek Orthodox Christianity and imperial patronage enabled the Byzantine Empire to develop a unique style of art and architecture. The Church of Hagia The Church of Hagia Eirene (Church of St. Irene). It is believed that Constantine Built it himself in the 4 th Century.
Hagia Sofia The most spectacular Christian cathedral built in Constantinople was the Church of Holy Wisdom. Built between 532-537 during reign of Justinian. This church was the major one in Constantinople for the emperor and patriarch. All major ceremonies were held there. Hagia Sofia became a mosque after 1453 and is now a museum.
There are some Christian mosaics that persisted in this church nevertheless.
Defense of Constantinople Byzantine emperors found it necessary to defend their capital at all costs, and some constructed walls to protect the city. Byzantine emperors found it necessary to defend their capital at all costs, and some constructed walls to protect the city.
Greek and Roman traditions were preserved in the Byzantine Empire. Greek and Roman traditions were preserved in the Byzantine Empire.
Byzantine Art Inspiration provided by Christian religion and imperial power. Inspiration provided by Christian religion and imperial power. Mosaics in public and religious structures. Mosaics in public and religious structures.
Icons – Holy Images Icon comes from the Greek word “image.” Subjects of icons include Christ, the Virgin Mary, Biblical figures, saints. Iconographers must live a holy life so as to express sacred and divine mysteries.
Christ Pantocrator Christ, “the ruler of all things.” Depicted blessing with his right hand and holding the Gospels in his left hand. The head of the Lord is always depicted with a halo.
Crucifix Crucifixes were the most common type of art. In the West, at this time, the portrayal of crucifixion was absent, but it existed in the East.
Bishops Bishops are at the top of the hierarchy of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The bishop’s job is to shepherd the church and protect it from heresy. Bishops were also often depicted in icons.
The Holy Angels Angels are the messengers of God. Their icons often adorn the side doors of altar screens as guardians of the Holy Altar. Archangel Michael is the Chief Commander of the Heavenly Hosts. Depicted holding a scepter and the orb of the world.
Saints Saints are members of the Church of Heaven. They can be asked to pray to God on behalf of others. They are role models of the Christian way of life, a way that continues to find persecution.
Greek and Roman culture survived with the Byzantine Empire. Continued flourishing of Greco-Roman traditions. Continued flourishing of Greco-Roman traditions. Greek language (as contrasted with Latin in the West). Greek language (as contrasted with Latin in the West). Greek Orthodox Christianity. Greek Orthodox Christianity. Greek and Roman knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries. Greek and Roman knowledge preserved in Byzantine libraries.
Bosporus Strait – connects the Mediterranean and Black Seas