What is a leadership style? The way a leader leads. What are the different styles? Autocratic Democratic Laissez-Faire
Autocratic The leader has complete authority and control. Tells group members what to do Secures dependence upon him/herself Gives instructions and others carry them out Conscious of his/her position and authority Group work is rare Believes that others cannot be trusted with large tasks Expects and secures discipline and immediate acceptance of all orders Urges group members to bring their problems to him/her and takes interest in all of the decision making NOT JUST LOUD, ANGRY, AND UNREASONABLE!
Democratic The entire group shares in decision making. Shares decision making with the group Develops participation, opinion giving, and decision making as much as possible Clear-cut and good communication Praise and criticism are given objectively Encourages worthwhile suggestions High degree of teamwork Leads to the development of independent leadership NOT JUST CHEERFUL, OVERLY OPTIMISTIC, AND ARTIFICIAL!
Laissez-faire The leader exerts little influence or control. Leader sits back and gives the group control Little communication Sets no clear goals for the group Does not make decisions or help the group arrive at decisions Low group productivity Little team work or group cohesion Expectations are left to individual group members NOT JUST LAZY, UNINVOLVED, AND DETACHED!
Dissecting Leadership Styles Within the three categories of leadership style, there are more narrowly defined styles. Joining Leader -tends to guide, not to rule, and encourages group decisions -Submerges his/herself in the group’s identity -participates as group member and agrees with the group’s decisions; allows for individual recognition Delegating Leader -defines a problem and then turns it over to the group to work through a solution -sets few guidelines; is identified as a resource for the group -often does not announce his or her own ideas
Consulting Leader -give group members a chance to influence the decision -presents a problem and then asks for ideas to solve it -may offer a tentative solution to gauge the group’s reaction -encourages the group to increase the number of alternatives to be considered -selects the solution that he/she regards as most promising Persuading Leader -makes decisions without consulting the group; tries to persuade the group members to accept it -describes how the decision fits the interests of the groups and its individual members Telling Leader -makes a decision and tells the group members what they are to do -assigns roles to members -relies primarily on his/her own judgment -may or may not consider how the group feels about the decision
Which is best? IT DEPENDS ON: Group size Meeting formality and purpose Familiarity of group members
Which style? Telling & Persuading leaders are most effective in large groups passive groups groups which meet infrequently, and/or when a group decision or deadline must be met quickly. Consulting leaders are most effective in large groups motivated groups representative groups, and/or organized groups.
Which style? Delegating & Joining leaders are most effective in small groups highly motivated groups groups with a high tolerance for ambiguity groups with a relatively strong need for independence groups where the members understand and identify with the goals of the organization groups where the members have the necessary knowledge and experience to deal with problems and/or groups where the members expect to share in the decision making.
Dimensions of Leadership The willingness to lead (“desire to lead”) “Do I want to take the lead?” Ability to accomplish the tasks and achieve the goals of the group (“task ability”) “Do I have the right people with the right skills to achieve our goals?” Ability to establish and maintain cordial and socially- satisfying relationships in the group (“social ability”) “Do I care whether or not people like me?”
Supporting Praise, listen, and facilitate For people who have: High Competence Variable Commitment Coaching Guide and support For people who have: Some Competence Some Commitment Delegating Turning over responsibility for day-to-day decision-making For people who have: High Competence High Commitment Directing Structure, control, and supervise For people who have: Low Competence High Commitment Situational Leadership
Situational Leadership Styles Directing style – is for people who lack competence but are enthusiastic and committed. They need direction and supervision to get them started. Coaching style – is for people who have some competence but lack commitment. They need direction and supervision because they are still relatively inexperienced. They also need support and praise to build self esteem, and involvement in decision-making to restore their commitment. Supporting style – is for people who have competence, but lack confidence and motivation. They do not need much direction because of their skills, but support is necessary to bolster confidence and motivation. Delegating style – is for people who have both competence and commitment. They are able and willing to work on a project by themselves with little supervision or support.
The 2 C’s Competence – is a function of knowledge and skills, which can be gained from education, training, and/or experience Commitment – is a combinations of confidence and motivation. Confidence is a measure of a person’s self-assuredness – a feeling of being able to do a task without much supervision, whereas motivation is a person’s interest in and enthusiasm for doing a task well.
Leader’s Behavior Directive behavior – involves clearly telling people what to do, how to do it, and when to do it, and then closely supervising their performance. Supportive behavior – involves listening to people, providing support and encouragement for their efforts, and then facilitating their involvement in problem- solving and decision-making.
The Changing Roles of Leadership Leadership happens when anyone in the group does or says something that moves the whole group further toward any of these three goals: The accomplishment of a task The resolution of internal group problems The ability of the members to work together effectively as a group
A Good Leader Involves everyone in the group and maintains productivity. People tend to support what they help create. Creates a feeling of ownership. Views leadership as service. This creates an atmosphere of trust that helps the group accomplish its tasks. Serves for the good of the group. Helps the group to see how it can deal with internal conflicts that may disrupt meetings, slow down accomplishments or goals, or alienate group members. Avoids pointing blame. Encourages the group to accept conflict as a natural group occurrence and to discuss and work through it so that members can return to the tasks at hand. Establishes an environment of growth.
In short, a good leader may serve as a Facilitator Adviser Observer Consultant Teacher Participant/group member
Hazards of Leadership Beware of the following mistakes: Loving the feeling of “being in charge” and becoming an autocratic leader who misuses the position. Becoming carried away with your own importance and losing sight of the group’s goals. Failing to listen to the advice of others with experience. Trying too hard and becoming involved in too many things. Failing to organize. Becoming frustrated by the group members; not all group members will respond to the same motivating techniques.
Tips for successful leadership 1. Match the task to the capabilities of the group member. 2. Involve different people. 3. Delegate tasks. 4. Monitor progress. 5. Admit mistakes. 6. Evaluate the task. 7. Use criticism effectively. 8. Express appreciation.