Presentation on theme: "Late Roman Art and Architecture and Constantine and Early Christian Architecture."— Presentation transcript:
Late Roman Art and Architecture and Constantine and Early Christian Architecture
The reigns of Diocletian and Constantine marked the last great age of Roman architecture. These Emperors used art and architecture to reach subjects across the empire who may have felt a dwindling connection to Rome The Role of the Emperor
Basilica of Constantine Constantine built the Basilica of Constantine, the last great Imperial building in Rome. Begun in AD 306 by Maxentius and finished by Constantine after 315. Remember, Constantine brought Christianity to the empire, making the mark of a basilica appropriate
Changing times… Not only was architecture changing, but classical styles of sculpture were slowly disappearing as well. Realistic portraits were abandoned and artists no longer tried to express a depth or sense of reality. Foreshadows art of the Middle Ages
Christianity becomes widespread and its art and ideals are vastly different Abandonment might be linked to Eastern religious cults.
Early Christian Architecture Religious architecture becomes the most important form of building throughout the Christian world. Remains true for more than 12 centuries
Early Christian Architecture Constantine associated with two of the most famous churches today: –Saint Peter’s Basilica in the Vatican rests on the remains of a basilica dedicated in 326AD. –The Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem was built in 345AD.
Building Types Modified Basilican plan (St. Peter’s) was based on Roman assembly hall. Known also as the “long” plan The central plan: based on Greco-Roman tholos (circular, polygonal) The mixed plan: combined elements of basilican and central forms
Building materials Concrete, stone and brick Timber used for ceilings, roofs, and doors Plaster and stucco facings “dressed” the wall surfaces Round arches used to frame doorways and windows Domes and vaults used to enclose and roof aisles and apses Building stone quarried from Pagan Roman buildings
Vocabulary Faithful entered into a courtyard called the atrium They would then walk through vestibule or narthex. The long central rectangular area was the nave The nave was intersected by a transcept. The roof of the transcept was pitched; high on the walls were the clerestory or windows. The apse was covered with a dome or half-dome
The Church of the Holy Sepulchre Located in Jerusalem Also employs the basilica style Behind the basilica is a domed structure believed to be the location where the body of Christ had been buried for three days. Domed structure was an adaptation of existing pagan structures in Empire (think Pantheon)