2DEFINATIONS:-Koontz and O`Donnell.- Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zeal.George R. Terry. –leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives.
3Nature and characteristics….. Personal qualityExists only with followersWillingness of people to follow makes a person leaderProcess of influenceExists only for the realisation of common goalsLeadership styles do change with different circumstancesFunction of stimulating the followers to strive willingly to attain organisational objectives.
51.The Trait Theory…..According to this theory, there are certain personal qualities and traits which are essential to be a successful leader. Henry fayol divided these qualities into 6 qualities these are: 1.Physical 2.Mental 3. Moral 4.Educational 5.Technical 6. Experience
6Shortcomings of this theory Fails to take into account the influence of other factors on leadership.Fails to indicate the comparative importance of different traits.Cannot hold for all sets of circumstances.List of traits is not uniform.
72. Charismatic Theory.. Charisma is a greek word which means gift. Charisma is a god given gift to a person which makes him a leader.Charismatic leaders are those who inspire followers.Assumptions:Some exceptionals have inborn leadership qualities.Inborn qualities are sufficient to be successfulCant be enhanced through trainingPersonal natureQualities make a leader effective
8LimitationsLeaders cannot be developedFail in changing situation
93. Behavioural theory….According to this approach , leadership involves an interpersonal relationship b/w a leader and subordinates in which the behaviour of the leader towards subordinate constitutes the more critical element.
104.Situational theory..According to this theory leadership is greatly affected by a situation and maintains that leadership pattern is the product of situation at a particular time. Drawbacks: In the complex process of leadership individual qualities and traits of the leader are also important.
115. The Follower theory…According to this theory, the essence of leadership is followership and it is the willingness of people to follow that makes a person a leader.
12LEADERSHIP STYLESRefers to the constituent behaviour pattern of a leader as percieved by people around him. The leadership style is the result of philosophy, personality & experience of a leader. According to their attitude & behaviour patterns leaders may be classified as follows:
131. Autocratic or Authoritarian Style Leader Under this style a leader expects complete obedience from his subordinates and all decision making is centralised in the leaderThere is no participation by subordinates in decision making processTypes:-Tough autocratBenevolent autocrat
142. Laissez-fare or Free-rain style Leader:- Under this type of leadership, maximum freedom is allowed to subordinates. They are given free hand in deciding their own policies & methods & take their own decisions.Features:No minimum interference from the leaders.Leader helps only when requested for.Individuals are allowed to plan their work.There is free & informal environment.Decision may be taken by majority.
15Suitability:- Where subordinates are properly trained & knowledgable. When employees take initiative & assume responsibility.Where leader is willing to delegate authority & responsibility.When leader has confidence in the avbility of subordinate.Where goals of companies & subordinates are compatible.
163. Democratic or Participative Style Leader:- Under this style, the leader acts according to the mutual consent & the decisions are reached after consulting the subordinates. It implies compromise b/w the two extremes of autocratic & laissez-fare style of leadership.Features:Decisions are taken after consulting subordinates.There is a delegation of authority.Decentralisation is followed in decision making process .There is a both way communication.Cooperation of suboridnates is taken in making important decisions.
17Benefits:- Implementation of decisions is quick. Employees become loyal to the organisation.Willing acceptance of rules,procedures,regulations by employees.Complaint, grievances and industrial unrest is contained.
184. Bureauceatic or Rules-centred leadership… It is a type of leadership where everything is influenced by rules and regulations.All decisions are taken on the basis of rules and regulations.
195.Manipulative leadership styles… Under this style, the leader tries to achieve organisational goals by exploiting the weak points of employees.The needs an aspirations of employees are used as a tool for achieving organisational goals.Suitabily:-When co-operation of employees is needed urgently for a specific task.When the projects are of short durations.When long term relationship is not required.
206.Paternalistic style leadership.. This type of leadership is based upon the sentiments and emotions of people. A paternalistic leader is like a father figure to the subordinates.
21Formal leader..Created by the formal structure , enjoys organisational authority and is accountable to those who have elected him in a formal way.Formal leader has a two folded responsibilty.A formal leader is a one who appointed or elected to direct and control the activities of subordinates.
22Informal leader…They are created to satisfy those needs which are not satisfied by the formal leadersStrengthen the formal leadershipDerive authority from people who are under their influence.
23Ledership functions.. Setting goals Organising Initiating action Co-ordinationDirection and motivationLink b/w management and workers
24Qualities of a good leader.. Ability to motivate.Ability to communicate.Quick decision power.Self confidence.Ability to understand thefeelings of other.
25Importance of leadership Act as a motive power to group effortsActs as an aid to authorityNeeded at all levels on managementRectifies the imperfectness of the formal organisational relationshipsBasis for co-operationImproves motivation and morale
26Process of effective leadership.. Consult the group in framing policiesDevelop voluntary co-operationExercise authorityBuild up confidenceListen to his subordinatesCommunicate effectivelyFollow the principle of motivation
27Leadership styles in Indian organisations…… Professionaly managed organisations.Public sector organisations.Family managed traditional organisations.