2 India is so huge that many geographers call it a subcontinent! subcontinent-a large area of land that is a part of a continent.Subcontinents are usually separated from the rest of their continent by physical features: mountains, lakes, etc.Geography of India
3 The Himalayas Mountains separate India from the rest of Asia. Mt. EverestMountains separate India from the rest of Asia.The Himalayas are the tallest mountains on all continents. Mt. Everest is the tallest mountain, 29,029 ft.!They are still growing around 5 mm. every year.
4 How were the Himalayas formed? Plate tectonics!!!!!Himalayas are the youngest mountain range on Earth.There are over 100 separate mountains in the range.In 10 million years, the mountain range will have pushed almost a mile further into Asia!!!!
5 Mt. Everest TriviaFirst to the top: Sir Edmund Hillary from New Zealand and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay of Nepal, in May of 1953.Over 6,000 people have reached the summitOver 200 people have lost their lives on the mountain.
6 More Himalaya TriviaK2 is the second highest mountain, 28,251 ft. Its summit was first reached in July of 1954, by a team of Italian mountain climbers. It is located in Karakoram, near the border of Pakistan.
7 Did you know that Mt. Everest is really not the tallest mountain on Earth? The tallest mountain is under the Pacific Ocean, in a underwater trench called Challenger Deep, off the Mariana Islands. Everest would have to grow 1.3 miles to out match this incredibly tall mountain. 16,000 pounds/sq. inch of pressure is placed on the tiniest organisms that live down there.Did You Know ?
10 GeographyMuch of India is covered with fertile plains, rugged mountains, and plateaus.DeccanPlateauHindu KushMountainsAndIndusRiverFertilefarmland
11 Ganges River is very sacred to the people of India. Source of theGanges, TheHimalayasGanges River is very sacred to the people of India.The GangesDeltaSnakes itsway toThe BayOf BengalVerySacredForHindus
12 Most of India has a hot and humid climate Most of India has a hot and humid climate. This climate is heavily influenced by India’s summer monsoons.What is a monsoon? a wind in the Indian Ocean and southern Asia that brings heavy rains in the summer- Some parts of India receive 100 to 200 inches of rain each season!ClimateFloodedfarmlands
13 Indus River ValleyThe Indus River was once a part of India. Today this region is now located in the country of Pakistan.It is believed that one of the first civilizations began in this river valley, around 2300 BC.
14 The Harappan Civilization PublicWellRuins atMohenjo DaroLike other ancient societies, the Hapappan civilization grew as irrigation and agriculture improved.Mohenjo Daro and Harappa were about 300 miles apart, but they were remarkably similar.
15 India’s First CitiesRuinsOfHarappaBoth Harappa and Mohenjo Daro were well planned cities.We can infer from this statement that the people of these two cities are intelligent and talented.These peoplehad apublicbath
16 Harappan Achievements Most houses had indoor plumbing.They developed India’s first writing system. Scholars have not yet learned to read this language so much of their way of life is still a mystery.They had kings and a strong central government.
17 Where did they go????Harappan civilization ended by the early 1700s BC. No one knows why!Perhaps invaders, disease, natural disasters such as earthquakes or floods cause the demise of this civilization.AncientMohenjoDaro
18 Aryan InvasionNot long after the Harappan civilization crumbled, a new group, the Aryans from central Asia, invaded the Indus Valley.They were skilled warriors, using chariots and advanced weapons.
19 The VedasMuch of what we know about the Aryans came from their poems, hymns, myths, rituals, and religious writings called the Vedas.The Vedas were written by Aryan priests.
20 SanskritWhat is Sanskrit? an ancient language of India-The Aryans wrote their poems and hymns in Sanskrit.Aryans kept records in Sanskrit and today we are able to know much about their history.Sanskrit is no longer spoken. Only a few priests know this ancient language.
21 The AryansAs nomads, the Aryans took along their herds of animals as they moved.Unlike the Harappans, the Aryan built no cities.They lived in small communities based on family ties.Their community leader was called a raja.
22 SummaryThe earliest civilizations in India were centered in the Indus Valley. First the Harappans and then the Aryans lived in this fertile valley.