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© International Dark-Sky AssociationProtecting the Night Environment Jim Fisher, Dave Grosvold & Bob Moody International Dark-Sky Association Arkansas Section I am an attorney by trade but for most of my life I have been fascinated with astronomy and space exploration. With or without a telescope I have always enjoyed going out at night and just soaking in the wonder of the night sky. As an amateur astronomer I am also keenly aware that we have access to only one habitable planet in the entire universe. We are standing on that planet now and we best take good care of our home – Earth! One way to do this is with smart uses of energy. © Wade Van Arsdale © International Dark-Sky Association
Protecting the Night EnvironmentWhat is light pollution? Why is light pollution bad for us and the environment? How can you and your community help preserve the night environment (and save money too!)? What is the International Dark-Sky Association? © International Dark-Sky Association
What Is “Light Pollution”?Answer: Any adverse effect of artificial light, including: sky glow glare light trespass light clutter decreased visibility at night energy waste Addressing the “journalistic questions.” Why, what, where, who, when, how. Here: What we are in this for. © International Dark-Sky Association
Glare, luminance overload, bad transition lightingToo bright! Bad transition from the street, in or out of the station. “Justified” on the basis of safety, but not as safe as one that is well lit. And a great glare bomb. And energy (and business overhead) waste. © International Dark-Sky Association 4
Poor security lighting, using an old 175 watt mercury fixture.The story. Owner was worried about safety and security. He bought the cheapest and brightest light he could find. Hung it on the balcony. See the balcony? See the criminal on the balcony? See the glare? See how adaptation is ruined? See the dark shadows? See the neighbors who hate the light trespass? Cost $25 to buy, $75 a year to operate (or more). Why not a light that costs $100, $10 a year to operate, and 100x better security? © International Dark-Sky Association 5
Example of a “light trespass” at an installation in San Francisco.Definition of light trespass almost. The story: A school playground, lit by floodlights, at 3 AM. Light trespass! What if that was your house? And see the waste. See the street light is out? Photo cell turned it off, thought it was daytime. How many walk or drive around 25 feet up in the air? We don’t need all that light up there. See the one down the street? Not much light on the ground, but still too much glare. It is an old mercury lighting system. Maybe 10 percent of the initial light output, but 100 percent of energy use. What do we do these things? © International Dark-Sky Association 6
Glare from a residential walkway light. Safe?Safe? Feel secure? Welcoming to your visitors? What if in a drizzle? Typical example of a real “glare bomb.” No criminal would worry at all about this type lighting. It’s criminal friendly. Smart people maybe, but stupid lighting. © International Dark-Sky Association 7
Can you find where you live?What stands out in this satellite composite photo are that the truly dark sky area are rapidly disappearing. If you find Lake Michigan and the Gulf of Mexico you realize there are not many dark skies in between. The major cities – even the larger communities in Arkansas - are easy to spot. Point out Chicago, St. Louis, Memphis and then Little Rock, Pine Bluff, Hot Springs, Texarkansa, and Ft. Smith with a laser pointer. © International Dark-Sky Association
WARNING: Light pollution may be hazardous to your health!Disrupts circadian rhythms, which are essential for good health Sleep disruption Reduces the human body's production of melatonin Lack of melatonin production promotes growth breast tumors in women and may similarly effect other cancers, including prostate cancer. © International Dark-Sky Association
Lights at Night: A serious threat to wildlife!Photos courtesy of © Jim Dixon Types of species adversely affected: Migratory birds Nocturnal mammals and amphibians © International Dark-Sky Association
Endangered species: Caelum Custos (sky watcher) Two elements of light pollution affect astronomers most: sky glow and light trespass. © Jim Fisher © International Dark-Sky Association
© International Dark-Sky AssociationEndangered species: Caelum Custos (sky watcher) The best thing about a power failure . . . Photographs © Todd Carlson Eastern North America © International Dark-Sky Association
The Bottom Line on “Why”For a functional, comfortable, and beautiful nighttime environment. For an environment friendly to: humans, including those with aging eyes, wildlife, plants, and the night sky. © International Dark-Sky Association
Save a planet (and your pocketbook too)!© International Dark-Sky Association
How can you and your community help preserve the night environment?And save $$ too! © Jim Fisher Pulaski County’s “Big Dam Bridge” © International Dark-Sky Association
© International Dark-Sky AssociationWhere to light, and when? Only light where needed. Only light when needed. Avoid obtrusive light. No wasted light or energy. Do you see lights burning (money) all night, when not needed? Whose money? Whose energy? And into your window and yard too. © Jim Fisher © Jim Fisher © International Dark-Sky Association 16
© International Dark-Sky AssociationHow much light? “The more the better” is a myth. Lighting Zones. Consider the location where you are. Use good transition lighting. Too much doesn’t help, it only waste energy. Think of transient adaptation. From too bright to too dark, and vice versa. Also the issue of luminance overload. Kill the glare. Glare is blinding light. The eye. Maximum as well as minimum. Why? Adaptation ranges. Overcoming glare. That’s dumb © International Dark-Sky Association 17
Why so much bad lighting ?Lack of awareness. Even in the lighting community. Builders, contractors, owners, operators. Utilities. Governmental staff. Apathy or inertia. “We have always done it that way in the past.” Who did it? We did! © International Dark-Sky Association 18
Before and after installation of shielded light fixtures© International Dark-Sky Association
Keys to Quality LightingSee the effect, not the source! Shine the light down. No glare! Light only where and when needed. Don’t over light. Use energy efficient sources. Makes sense. Why isn’t all night lighting like this? It works. We all win. Good sound bytes; relates to talking to the media too. © Jim Fisher © International Dark-Sky Association 20
Brighter does not mean saferGood visibility is the goal. Photos © George Fleenor © International Dark-Sky Association
Examples of fully shielded fixtures.Major shopping center. High pole height gets a good lighting distribution, even between cars. Confines light to the parking area, not into adjacent neighborhoods. No glare. No light trespass. Energy efficient. We all win. © International Dark-Sky Association 22
Fully shielded fixtures for your home© Jim Fisher © Jim Fisher © International Dark-Sky Association
Antique (or period lighting) fixture, fully shielded.Full cut off. Excellent shielding of the source. Looks good in the day, and at night. No glare, no light trespass, no waste. Other kinds of full cut off fixtures exist, for all types of lighting needs. See the IDA web site for details. © International Dark-Sky Association 24
Here is a good example of using lighting fixtures with good control of the light output. Very good cutoff. No light trespass. No glare. No neighbor complaints. Why not do it right? © International Dark-Sky Association 25
© International Dark-Sky AssociationIn the News . . . © International Dark-Sky Association
In national and international news . . .“Of all the pollution we face, light pollution is perhaps the most easily remedied.” - Verilyn Klinkenborg, “Our Vanishing Night,” National Geographic, November, 2008 © International Dark-Sky Association
© International Dark-Sky AssociationIn the local news . . . “All it would take to reverse the damage we are doing is simply to aim our night-time lights downward It also makes good economic sense to cut dramatically back on lighting during non-business nighttime hours, particularly when utility rates rise.” - Mike Masterson, “Preserve our night skies,” Arkansas Democrat- Gazette, January 4, 2009 © International Dark-Sky Association
© International Dark-Sky AssociationWho are we? The International Dark-Sky Association IDA’s Mission: To preserve, protect, and restore the nighttime environment and our heritage of dark-skies through quality outdoor lighting. Membership based. 11,000 members in all 50 states and 75 countries worldwide. 500 member organizations. © International Dark-Sky Association
© International Dark-Sky Association 3225 N First Avenue Tucson AZ USA Fax: Leave on the screen so people can copy the information. Thank them for coming! And for being interested in good lighting and dark skies. Make allies, not enemies. Questions? Stories? Membership! © Wade Van Arsdale © International Dark-Sky Association 30
International Dark-Sky AssociationJoin IDA today! We need you to help protect the night sky! Join up! Now! We need your help. Photograph © David Wymer Cherry Springs State Park, Pennsylvania © International Dark-Sky Association 31
Announcing: The New IDA -Arkansas Section!!We are your neighbors and friends! Formed in September 2008 by a group of amateur astronomers from all over Arkansas Recognized by IDA Board in October 2008 Totally run by volunteers who are dedicated to all night-time environmental concerns, not just astronomy No dues in addition to IDA membership © Jim Dixon © International Dark-Sky Association © Jim Fisher
Your neighbors and friends . . .working to preserve dark skies in Arkansas! © International Dark-Sky Association
© International Dark-Sky AssociationThank you!! © Jim Fisher “I have loved the stars too fondly to be fearful of the night.” Sarah Williams, The Old Astronomer to his Pupil Much more information about IDA on the IDA Web site. © Wade Van Arsdale © Wade Van Arsdale © International Dark-Sky Association
Introduction to Outdoor Lighting And How it Affects Light Pollution IDA in Partnership with NOAO, NSF and IYA Dark Skies Awareness.
presentation, August, 2008 Click to begin.
House Briefing July 13, 2009 The Energy and Environmental Consequences of Light Pollution.
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Author: Petrova Lena, 10 th v grade student Bondary secondary school 2013.
October 9, 2007CAP Conference1 GLOBE at Night: an Update and Look Ahead to IYA Connie Walker, Doug Isbell and Stephen Pompea National Optical Astronomy.
Light Pollution Dan Caton –President, North Carolina Section of the International Dark-Sky Association (NCIDA) NC-APA Summer Planning Institute 8/1/01.
Light Pollution: A Primer Dan Caton, Professor and Observatory Director NCAM 10/4/2014.
August 22-23, 2008Darksky 2008 European Symposium Vienna, Austria International Year of Astronomy Cornerstone Dark Skies Awareness Some slides adapted.
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