Locating Positions on the Earth’s Surface
Coordinate System Surface grid used to locate any position on the Earth Latitude and Longitude
System uses two reference points:
Equator – (00 latitude) Imaginary line that circles the earth The angular distance north or south of the equator is called latitude Lines of latitude are parallel to each other 2. Prime Meridian (00 longitude) Runs from the north pole to the south pole through Greenwich, England The angular distance east or west of the Prime Meridian is called longitude. Longitude lines meet at the poles and run north to south
Lines of latitude and longitude on the Globe
P R I M E D A N Equator--
Globe to Mercator
Notice the distortion in the polar regions.
South America is actually 9 times the size of Greenland
An area of the world will always be distorted with these projections.
Projections Map Projections.asf
Distance using Latitude
One degree of latitude = 111km Each degree is divided into 60 minutes (60’) Each minute = 1.85km Each minute is divided into 60 seconds (60”) 420 30’ 15” N is read as 42 degrees, 30 minutes and 15 seconds north This means the location is 4718km north of the equator
Distance using Longitude
At the equator, one degree of longitude = 111km As you go towards the poles, this distance decreases
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