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Data presentation A guide to good tables Bureau of Justice Statistics October 11, 2000 Marianne W. Zawitz

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Presentation on theme: "Data presentation A guide to good tables Bureau of Justice Statistics October 11, 2000 Marianne W. Zawitz"— Presentation transcript:

1 Data presentation A guide to good tables Bureau of Justice Statistics October 11, 2000 Marianne W. Zawitz zawitzm@ojp.usdoj.gov

2 Bureau of Justice Statistics Elements of a table Color Total Widgets Gadgets Blue20 14 6 Red28 23 5 Green*18 3 15 Table 1. Number of widgets and gadgets by color * True color is aqua not green. Number

3 Bureau of Justice Statistics Elements of a table Color Total Widgets Gadgets Blue20 14 6 Red28 23 5 Green*18 3 15 Table 1. Number of widgets and gadgets by color * True color is aqua not green. Number Stub {

4 Bureau of Justice Statistics Elements of a table Color Total Widgets Gadgets Blue20 14 6 Red28 23 5 Green*18 3 15 Table 1. Number of widgets and gadgets by color * True color is aqua not green. Number Header

5 Bureau of Justice Statistics Elements of a table Color Total Widgets Gadgets Blue20 14 6 Red28 23 5 Green*18 3 15 Table 1. Number of widgets and gadgets by color * True color is aqua not green. Number Spreader Head

6 Bureau of Justice Statistics Elements of a table Color Total Widgets Gadgets Blue20 14 6 Red28 23 5 Green*18 3 15 Table 1. Number of widgets and gadgets by color * True color is aqua not green. Number Data field

7 Bureau of Justice Statistics Elements of a table Color Total Widgets Gadgets Blue20 14 6 Red28 23 5 Green*18 3 15 Table 1. Number of widgets and gadgets by color * True color is aqua not green. Number Cell

8 Bureau of Justice Statistics Elements of a table Color Total Widgets Gadgets Blue20 14 6 Red28 23 5 Green*18 3 15 Table 1. Number of widgets and gadgets by color * True color is aqua not green. Number Row

9 Bureau of Justice Statistics Elements of a table Color Total Widgets Gadgets Blue20 14 6 Red28 23 5 Green*18 3 15 Table 1. Number of widgets and gadgets by color * True color is aqua not green. Number Column

10 Bureau of Justice Statistics Elements of a table Color Total Widgets Gadgets Blue20 146 Red28 23 5 Green*18 3 15 Table 1. Number of widgets and gadgets by color * True color is aqua not green. Number Title

11 Bureau of Justice Statistics Elements of a table Color Total Widgets Gadgets Blue20 146 Red28 23 5 Green*18 3 15 Table 1. Number of widgets and gadgets by color * True color is aqua not green. Number Notes

12 Use tables, when you need - to present 10 or fewer data points to find exact numeric values to make localized comparisons Bureau of Justice Statistics

13 Tables have an architecture Use the structure of the table to reinforce its purpose Take advantage of how we learned to do math Bureau of Justice Statistics

14 32748312342718 327 483 123 42 7 18 Bureau of Justice Statistics

15 XXXX XXX XX X Bureau of Justice Statistics

16 Types of tables - Exploratory tables Resource tables Presentation tables Bureau of Justice Statistics

17 12 and13-1415161718192021 under 19796.7122236326.4404472.1425400.9403.9 19806.7126.3251319.4400.8457.5429.9399.6407.4 19817.2138.4262.5339.7406460.9450.5407410.9 19826.8128.5266.6336.9420.9471.6465.8443.5432.1 19837.5130.8245.5316.3393.4433.2413.4393.6399.8 19847.4141.2267.1336.5414.8468.7433.6392.4410 19858.2165.6302.9374.6444.3501.2469.5418.9415 19867.2166.9297.3388.7476.4560.5508.9484.3468.6 19877.2163.5295.8368.8458.4548.3516.1469.8474 19889.3180.1343.9435.5541.2634.8558.5509.9497.1 19899.5206.5391.8531.7640.2704.8638541.9543.2 19908.9221.2416.7553.9661.8756.3632.3546.5521.4 199112.7280.6518.4669.7775.1886.6725.2601.9591.4 199213.9316.5559724.1802.9920.1777.6651.5610.8 Example of an exploratory table Bureau of Justice Statistics

18 Number ofFull-time Stateagenciesemployeessworn officers All States18,769921,978663,535 Alabama43214,3899,767 Alaska691,8841,254 Arizona13016,82810,088 Arkansas3607,9585,819 California524103,96769,134 Colorado24714,0029,896 Connecticut12910,3198,525 Delaware452,1341,660 District of Columbia34,6513,909 Florida38560,80837,395 Resource table Bureau of Justice Statistics

19 Relationship with child Percent of perpetrators Father32% Acquaintance30 Mother28 Other family6 Stranger4 Presentation table Homicides of children under age 5 Bureau of Justice Statistics

20 Tables should -- Show the data  Reduce nondata ink  Avoid puzzles  Create a logical visual pattern Use the same standards for verbal elements we use in graphics Bureau of Justice Statistics

21 State Number of agencies Full-time employees Full-time sworn officers All States...................18,769921,978663,535 Alabama....................43214,3899,767 Alaska........................691,8841,254 Arizona......................13016,82810,088 Arkansas...................3607,9585,819 California...................524103,96769,134 Colorado....................24714,0029,896 Connecticut...............12910,3198,525 Delaware....................452,1341,660 District of Columbia.34,6513,909 Florida.......................38560,80837,395 Excess lines and marks make the data hard to see Bureau of Justice Statistics

22 State Number of agencies Full-time employees Full-time sworn officers All States 18,769921,978663,535 Alabama 43214,3899,767 Alaska 691,8841,254 Arizona. 13016,82810,088 Arkansas 3607,9585,819 California 524103,96769,134 Colorado 24714,0029,896 Connecticut 12910,3198,525 Delaware 452,1341,660 District of Columbia 34,6513,909 Florida 38560,80837,395 Without the lines the data are the focus of the table Bureau of Justice Statistics

23 Keep decimal places to a minimum They imply false precision (often they are not significant) They pad the numbers making them bigger than they really are Use only as many decimal places as needed to break a tie Bureau of Justice Statistics

24 Male perpetrators Male victim 67.8697% Male victim 68 % Female victim 21.9989% Female victim22 Female perpetrators Male victim 7.7851% Male victim 8 Female victim 2.3463% Female victim 2 This table has too many decimal places With fewer decimal places, it is easier to read The numbers were different enough that decimal places were not needed Homicides of children under age 5 Homicides of children under age 5 Bureau of Justice Statistics

25 Presentation tables should -- Reduce the data presented Not present everything to show that it all adds up Use only one of the two variables when presenting binary data Bureau of Justice Statistics

26 Order the content according to how the data will be used Presentation tables use rank order or another hierarchy -- Look to the numbers to carry out the ordering Resource tables use alphabetical or reference order Bureau of Justice Statistics

27 Relationship with child Percent of perpetrators Father32% Acquaintance30 Mother28 Other family6 Stranger4 Rank order in presentation tables reveals the structure of the data Homicides of children under age 5 Bureau of Justice Statistics

28 State Number of agencies Full-time employees Full-time sworn officers All States 18,769921,978663,535 Alabama 43214,3899,767 Alaska 691,8841,254 Arizona. 13016,82810,088 Arkansas 3607,9585,819 California 524103,96769,134 Colorado 24714,0029,896 Connecticut 12910,3198,525 Delaware 452,1341,660 District of Columbia 34,6513,909 Florida 38560,80837,395 Order resource tables alphabetically or in another meaningful manner Bureau of Justice Statistics

29 Structure the table to -- make patterns and exceptions obvious at a glance place numbers that are to be compared close to one another (in a column is best) place summary data where it will be most useful Bureau of Justice Statistics

30 This structure makes it difficult to compare the same units 1990 1995 1996 ITEMNumber Percent Number Percent Number Percent TYPES OF SUBSTANTIATED MALTREATMENT/1 Victims, total690,658 (X) 970,285(X)969,018 (X) Neglect338,77049.1507,01552.3 500,03251.6 Physical abuse186,801 27237,84024.5 229,33223.7 Sexual abuse119,50617.3122,96412.7 119,39712.3 Emotional maltreatment 45,621 6.6 42,051 4.3 55,473 5.7 Medical Neglect (NA)(NA) 28,541 2.9 5,758 2.7 Other and unknown 61,477 8.9 157,81916.3175,61318.1 Bureau of Justice Statistics

31 A revision puts the numbers that are to be compared close together TYPES OF SUBSTANTIATED MALTREATMENT/1 Number of victims Percent of all victims 199019951996 -------------------------------------- Victims, total690,658970,285969,018 100.0%100.0%100.0% Neglect338,770507,015500,032 49.1 52.3 51.6 Physical abuse186,801237,840229,332 27.0 24.5 23.7 Sexual abuse119,506122,964119,397 17.3 12.7 12.3 Emotional maltreatment 45,621 42,051 55,473 6.6 4.3 5.7 Medical Neglect... 28,541 25,758 2.9 2.7 Other and unknown 61,477157,819175,613 8.9 16.3 18.1 Bureau of Justice Statistics

32 A better way to restructure this table is to make the annual comparisons up and down Emotional Victims,Physical Sexual maltreat-Medical Other and Year totalNeglectabuseabusementNeglectunknown Number 1990690,658338,770186,801119,50645,621... 61,477 1995970,285507,015237,840122,96442,05128,541157,819 1996969,018500,032229,332119,39755,47325,758175,613 Percent 1990100.0%49.1%27.0%17.3%6.6%... 8.9% 1995100.052.324.512.74.32.916.3 1996100.051.623.712.35.72.718.1 Bureau of Justice Statistics

33 Notation should -- be placed in the row labels and column headers if possible (otherwise they interfere with our ability to see the data) not be numeric characters so they are not confused with the numbers Bureau of Justice Statistics

34 Notation in this table interferes with your ability to compare the numbers 1990 1995 1996 ITEMNumber Percent Number Percent Number Percent TYPES OF SUBSTANTIATED MALTREATMENT/1 Victims, total690,658 (X) 970,285(X)969,018 (X) Neglect338,77049.1507,01552.3 500,03251.6 Physical abuse186,801 27237,84024.5 229,33223.7 Sexual abuse119,50617.3122,96412.7 119,39712.3 Emotional maltreatment 45,621 6.6 42,051 4.3 55,473 5.7 Medical Neglect (NA)(NA) 28,541 2.9 5,758 2.7 Other and unknown 61,477 8.9 157,81916.3175,61318.1 Bureau of Justice Statistics

35 Lighter notation conveys information without interfering TYPES OF SUBSTANTIATED MALTREATMENT/1 Number of victims Percent of all victims 199019951996 -------------------------------------- Victims, total690,658970,285969,018 100.0%100.0%100.0% Neglect338,770507,015500,032 49.1 52.3 51.6 Physical abuse186,801237,840229,332 27.0 24.5 23.7 Sexual abuse119,506122,964119,397 17.3 12.7 12.3 Emotional maltreatment 45,621 42,051 55,473 6.6 4.3 5.7 Medical Neglect... 28,541 25,758... 2.9 2.7 Other and unknown 61,477157,819175,613 8.9 16.3 18.1 Bureau of Justice Statistics

36 Number Stateadmittedexecutedremoved All States-- Alabama-- Alaska-- Arizona-- Arkansas-- California-- Colorado-- Connecticut-- Delaware-- District of Columbia-- Florida-- Avoid tables with many empty cells and don’t use notation for true 0’s -- see page 27. Bureau of Justice Statistics

37 Rows should -- have consistent labeling from table to table indent the labels to show subdivisions (nesting) create patterns with a line or half line skip every fifth entry in long lists Bureau of Justice Statistics

38 Label nesting shows relationships Male perpetrators Male victim 68 % Female victim22 Female perpetrators Male victim 8 Female victim 2 Homicides of children under age 5

39 Columns should -- contain the same unit of measure have labels that clearly identify what is measured (both numerator and denominator for rates or percentages) avoid repetitious categories by spacing and grouping Bureau of Justice Statistics

40 Mixing units of analysis compares apples to oranges (or dogs to cats) Source: Statistical Abstracts of the United States Bureau of Justice Statistics

41 Full-time Stateemployeessworn officers All States921,978663,535 Alabama14,3899,767 Alaska1,8841,254 Arizona16,82810,088 Arkansas7,9585,819 California103,96769,134 Colorado14,0029,896 Connecticut10,3198,525 Delaware2,1341,660 District of Columbia4,6513,909 Florida60,80837,395 the grand canyon Avoid large gaps between the stub and first column Bureau of Justice Statistics

42 Use no more than 9 columns in a table Add clues regarding the unit of analysis next to the first number (%, months, widgets, etc.) A few additional thoughts Bureau of Justice Statistics

43 Do not use abbreviations Avoid acronyms Write all labels left to right Use proper grammar Make all verbal tasks easy to understand Bureau of Justice Statistics

44 Table titles should -- briefly describe the data presented highlight the difference between this table and others in the first words be long enough to inform but short enough not to bore Bureau of Justice Statistics


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