Presentation on theme: "7 th Grade Civics Chapter 1, Section 1. Today, most people are citizens of the country in which they live. Citizens have certain rights & duties. They."— Presentation transcript:
7 th Grade Civics Chapter 1, Section 1
Today, most people are citizens of the country in which they live. Citizens have certain rights & duties. They agree to follow a set of rules & to accept the government’s authority.
A government is the ruling authority for a community. Functions of government include: –Keeping order; Ex: enforcing traffic laws –Providing security; Ex: preventing crime –Guiding the community; Ex: managing the economy –Providing services; Ex: providing schools, water, etc.
Governments use a budget to determine the services that it provides. A budget is a plan for collecting and spending money.
National Government: highest Level makes & enforces laws for the entire country. (Centered in our nation’s capitol-Washington D.C. State Government: Each of the 50 states Has its own government And they decide matters for The people of that state Local Government: Includes counties, Cities, and towns
State and local governments cannot take actions that go against laws and authority of the national government.
The United States government is a democracy which means that the people rule. In a direct democracy, all the citizens meet to debate government matters and vote firsthand. In a representative democracy, the citizens choose a smaller group to represent them, make laws, and govern on their behalf. Which type of democracy does the United States have?
The U.S. is the oldest representative democracy in the world. Democracies have free and open elections. One person, one vote. There are some requirements for voting. Since you can’t please all the people all the time, we have a principle called majority rule. We abide by what most of the people want. But, we still respect the rights of those in the minority.
CivicsCivics Chapter 1, Section 2
The U.S. Constitution establishes 2ways a person may become a citizen: 1.Birth 2.Naturalization
You would automatically be an American citizen if you were born in one of our 50 states or in the District of Columbia, in an American territory, or on a U.S. military base overseas. You can claim citizenship if both your parents are citizens or if one parent is a citizen who has lived in the U.S. Children born on American soil to non-U.S. citizens can also acquire U.S. citizenship, except for children of foreign diplomats.
Many noncitizens or aliens can become naturalized citizens. More than half a million immigrants – people who move permanently to a new country – gain American citizenship each year.
The Naturalization Process 1.Immigrant signs a declaration of intention 2.Declaration is filed with the USCIS (United States Citizenship and Immigration Services) 3.After living in the U.S. for a specified # of years, the immigrant files an application for citizenship.
The Naturalization Process 4.USCIS interviews the applicant 5.Applicant passes a citizenship exam 6.Applicant pledges an oath of allegiance
Americans keep their citizenship for life, unless they choose to give it up. The U.S. restricts the # of immigrants who can enter the country. Highest priority goes to relatives of the U.S. citizens and people with needed skills. Many aliens live in the U.S. illegally. Many come looking for a better life. Because of immigration laws, it is hard for them to find work. The aliens live in fear that the government will discover and deport them– send them back to their own country.
The U.S. Border Patrol patrols: –Mexican & Canadian land borders –Waters surrounding the peninsula of Florida and the island of Puerto Rico They are to detect and prevent the illegal entry of aliens into the U.S.
Legal aliens: –Hold jobs –Pay taxes –Attend public schools –Do not have full political rights: Cannot vote Cannot run for office Cannot work in most government jobs Must carry ID cards at all times
CivicsCivics Chapter 1, Section 3
E pluribus unum is Latin for “Out of many, one.” This phrase is found on the back of every American coin. This phrase reminds us of the many diverse citizens of the U.S. who have joined together to create one, strong nation.
More than 292 million people live in the U.S. today. All of us are descendants from families that moved to our country a long time ago. The first Native Americans came the U.S. by crossing a “land bridge” from Asia to North America.
Immigrants to the U.S.: –Were mostly from Europe up until the mid-1900s –In the past 50 years, have mostly been from Latin America and Asia Years ago, many immigrants from Africa were brought to the U.S. by force and were sold as slaves.
America is FULL of Diversity! Ethnicities Whites of European descent African Americans Hispanics Asians Native Americans Religions Christians Jews Muslims Buddhists Those who don’t practice any religion are equally at home here. Hispanics are the fastest growing ethnic group.
Over the years, our population has changed in many ways! –People moved from farms to factory jobs in cities. –Manufacturing jobs have declined and service jobs have increased. –More women are in the workforce
After slavery ended, a migration, or mass movement occurred as African Americans left the South for jobs in the North. Today more Americans are living longer and having fewer children. More Americans are earning college degrees.
Reasons for the Unity among Americans: –Our political heritage is based on documents such as the: Declaration of Independence U.S. Constitution Bill of Rights –We share a common language. English is the main source of communication in our government, education, and businesses. (You have the freedom to speak any language though)
Americans show patriotism, or love for their country by: –Flying the flag –Singing the National Anthem –Reciting the Pledge of Allegiance –Following the nation’s laws –Coming together in times of trouble Evident after September 11, The attacks in NYC and Washington D.C. were acts of terrorism– the use of violence by groups against civilians to achieve a political goal.