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Format of Formal Reports

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Presentation on theme: "Format of Formal Reports"— Presentation transcript:

1 Format of Formal Reports
Front Matter Main Text Back Matter

2 Front Matter Include the preliminary information that orients all readers to the content of the report. Except for the cover, which has no page number, pages in the front matter are numbered with roman numerals.

3 Format of Front Matter I
Front Cover Title Page Contents Page Abstract

4 Format of Front Matter II
List of illustrations (Figures and Tables) List of abbreviations. Copyright Dedication Acknowledgements Preface

5 Front Cover Is what people see first. Contains
the report's title and the author's name. the date of publication. Has no page number. Use initial capitals for the title.

6 Title Page Often contains the same information as is on the cover.
Is numbered "i"

7 Contents Page The table of contents includes the names of all the headings and subheadings for the main text. In addition, the table of contents includes names of all headings (but not subheadings) in the front matter and back matter. For instance, the contents page includes listings for the the appendices (including appendix titles), the glossary, and the references.

8 Abstract I The function is to allow readers to judge if or not the report is of relevance to them. A concise summary of the aims, scope and conclusions of the report. The more specific an abstract is, the more interesting it is likely to be. Should be self-contained and written for as broad an audience.

9 Abstract II In general there are two types of abstracts: descriptive summaries and informative summaries. A descriptive summary describes what kind of information is in the report; it is a table of contents in paragraph form. An informative summary is a synopsis of the text portion of the report. An abstract is often informative and geared toward the technical audience of the report.

10 Main Text Begin all major headings on a new page.
Use Arabic numerals for numbering pages of the text and begin the first page of your text as page 1.

11 Format of Main Text Introduction Discussion Conclusion

12 Introduction I Can be regarded as an expanded version of the abstract.
Is written for the widest audience possible. Prepares readers for understanding the discussion of the report.

13 Introduction II Can discuss the importance or ramification of the conclusions But should omit supporting evidence, which the interested reader can find in the body of the paper. Relevant literature can be reviewed in the introduction But complex mathematics belongs elsewhere Tell the reader what in the report is new and what the outcomes are.

14 The Introduction Describes
The report’s topic The problem being studied The motivation The approach to the solution The scope and limitations of the solution The conclusions The report’s structure

15 Motivation Why the problem is interesting
What the relevant scientific issues are Why the solution is a good one Why the proposal is worth reading

16 Survey Compare new results to similar results in the literature
Describe existing knowledge and how it is extended by the new results Help a reader who is not expert in the field to understand the report Point to standard references

17 Discussion I Is the story of your work.
You do not necessarily present results in the order that you understood them, but in the order that is easiest for your readers to understand them. In your discussion, you not only present results, but you also evaluate those results.

18 Discussion II Note that you do not generally use the word "Discussion" as the title for the major headings in this part of the report. Rather, you choose titles that reflect the content of the sections.

19 Conclusion Analyzes for the most important results from the discussion and evaluates those results in the context of the entire work. In your conclusion, you often make recommendations based on those evaluations. The conclusion is much like an informative summary except for one thing-in the conclusion, you are writing to an audience who has read your report.

20 Back Matter Contains your appendices, glossary, and references.
Usually begins on the page following the conclusion. Continue numbering back matter pages with Arabic numerals.

21 Format of Back Matter References Appendices Glossary

22 Appendices Give detail of proofs or experimental results and material such as listings of computer programs. Hold bulky material that would otherwise interfere with the narrative flow of the report. Or hold material that most readers will not refer to Therefore, appendices are not usually necessary!

23 Appendices : How To I Use appendices to present supplemental information for secondary readers. When the occasion arises in the text, refer readers to information in the appendix. Treat each appendix as a major heading.

24 Appendices : How To II If you have only appendix, call it the "Appendix." If you have more than one appendix, number the appendices with letters: Appendix A, Appendix B, and so on. In both a single appendix or in an Appendix A, figures and tables are numbered A-1, A-2, and so on. Equations in Appendix A are numbered in the same way.

25 Glossary I Use a glossary to define terms for secondary readers.
Arrange terms in alphabetical order. Use italics or underlines to key readers to terms that the glossary will define.

26 Glossary II Footnote the first italicized or underlined term in the text and key readers to the location of glossary, where that term and all future underlined or italicized terms will be defined. Use a reverse indent for each definition and treat each definition as a separate paragraph.

27 References or Bibliography
A list of papers, books, and reports cited in the report Use a reference page to list alphabetically the references of your report. Also skip a space between each citation.

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