2 CHAPTER 24 BUDGETARY PLANNING After studying this chapter, you should be able to:1 Indicate the benefits of budgeting.2 State the essentials of effective budgeting.3 Identify the budgets that comprise the master budget.4 Describe the sources for preparing the budgeted income statement.5 Explain the principal sections of a cash budget.6 Indicate the applicability of budgeting in nonmanufacturing companies.
3 Budgeting Basics Budget formal written statement of management’s plans for a specified future time period, expressed in financial terms.a) provide historical data on revenues, costs, and expenses,b) express management’s plans in financial terms, andc) prepare periodic budget reports.
4 Benefits of Budgeting STUDY OBJECTIVE 1 a) All levels of management plan ahead.b) Definite objectives for evaluating performance.c) Early warning system for potential problems.d) Coordination of activities within the business.e) Management awareness of the entity’s overall operations.f) Motivates personnel throughout organization to meet planned objectives.
5 Essentials of Effective Budgeting STUDY OBJECTIVE 2 Sound organizational structureauthority and responsibility for all phases of operations are clearly defined.Based on research and analysisrealistic goals that will contribute to the growth and profitability of the company.Directly related acceptance by all levels of management.
6 Length of the Budget Period Most common budget periodone yearbudget may be prepared for any period of timeA continuous twelve-month budgetdrops the month just ended and adds a future monthAnnual budgetsupplemented by monthly and quarterly budgets
7 The Budgeting Process Budget committee Responsible for coordinating the preparation of the budgetordinarily includesthe president, treasurer, chief accountant (controller), and management personnel from each major area of the company
9 Budgeting and Human Behavior Strong positive influence on a manager when:Each level of management is invited and encouraged to participate in developing the budget.Criticism of a manager’s performance is tempered with advice and assistance.Top management is sensitive to the behavioral implications of its actions.
10 Budgeting and Long-Range Plans the achievement of specific short-term goalsLong-range planningidentifies and selects strategies to achieve goals and develop policies and plans to implement the strategiesLong-range planscontain less detail
11 Compared to budgeting, long-range planning generally has the: ReviewCompared to budgeting, long-range planning generally has the:same amount of detail.longer time period.same emphasis.same time period.
12 Compared to budgeting, long-range planning generally has the: ReviewCompared to budgeting, long-range planning generally has the:same amount of detail.longer time period.same emphasis.same time period.
13 The Master Budget STUDY OBJECTIVE 3 A set of interrelated budgets that constitutes a plan of action for a specified time period.Developed within the framework of a sales forecast.
15 Two Classes of Budgets in the Master Budget Operating budgetsthe individual budgets that result in the preparation of the budgeted income statementFinancial budgetsfocus on the cash resources needed to fund expected operations and planned capital expenditures
16 Preparing the Operating Budgets: Sales Budget The first budget prepared.Each of the other budgets depends on the sales budget.It is derived from the sales forecast. It represents management’s best estimate of sales revenue for the budget period.
17 Sales BudgetThe sales budget is prepared by multiplying the expected unit sales volume for each product by its anticipated unit selling price.For Hayes Company, sales volume is expected to be 3,000 units in the first quarter with 500-unit increments in each succeeding year. Based on a sales price of $60 per unit, the sales budget for the year by quarters is shown below:$180, $210, $240, $270, $900,000
18 Production BudgetShows the units that must be produced to meet anticipated sales.It is derived from the budgeted sales units (per sales budget) plus the desired ending finished goods less the beginning finished goods units.The production requirement formula is:Desired Ending Finished Goods UnitsBeginning Finished Goods UnitsRequired Production UnitsBudgeted Sales Units
19 Production BudgetHayes believes it can meet future sales requirements by maintaining an ending inventory equal to 20% of the next quarter’s budgeted sales volume. The production budget is shown below.Per sales budgetRequired production units , , , , ,40020% of nextquarter’s salesExpected st Q sales5,000 units x 20%
20 Direct Materials Budget Shows both the quantity and cost of direct materials to be purchased.It is derived from the direct materials units required for production (per production budget) plus the desired ending direct materials units less the beginning direct materials units.Direct Materials Units Required for ProductionDesired Ending Direct Material UnitsRequired Direct Materials PurchasesUnitsBeginning DirectMaterialsUnits
21 Direct Materials Budget Hayes has found that an ending inventory of raw materials equal to 10% ofthe next quarter’s production is sufficient. The manufacture of Kitchen-materequires 2 pounds of raw materials and the expected cost per pound is $4.The direct materials budget is shown below:from production budgetTotal cost of direct materialspurchases $25, $29, $33, $37, $124,800
22 Direct Labor BudgetAt Hayes Company, two hours of direct labor are required toproduce each unit of finished goods, and the anticipatedhourly wage rate is $10. The direct labor budget is shown below.HAYES COMPANYDirect Labor BudgetFor the Year Ending December 31, 2005QUARTER1234YearUnits to be produced(from Production Budget)3,1003,6004,1004,600Direct Labor time (hours)per unitTotal required direct laborhours6,2007,2008,2009,200Direct labor cost per hour$10Total direct labor cost $62,000 $72,000 $82,000 $92,000 $308,000
23 Manufacturing Overhead and Selling and Administrative Budget Manufacturing overhead budgetexpected manufacturing overhead costsSelling and administrative expense budgetprojection of anticipated operating expenses.Both distinguish between fixed and variable costs.
24 Manufacturing Overhead Budget Hayes Company expects variable costs to fluctuate with production volume on the basis of the following rates per direct labor hour (as calculated in the Direct Labor Budget).Indirect materials $1.00/hr Indirect labor $1.40/hr Utilities $.40/hr Maintenance $ .20/hrTotal variable , , , , ,400
25 Manufacturing Overhead Budget Fixed costs complete the manufacturing overhead budget andthe totals are used to calculate an overhead rate, which will beapplied to production on the basis of direct labor hours.Total manufacturing overhead $57, $60, $63, $66, $246,400Direct labor hours , , , , ,800Manufacturing overhead rate per direct labor hour ($246,000 / 30,800) = $8.00
26 Selling and Administrative Expense Budget Variable expenses are based on the unit sales projected in thesales budget. The rates per unit of sales are sales commissions$3.00 and freight-out $ Fixed costs are based on assumed data.Total selling and $42, $44,000 $46, $48,000 $180,000 administrative expenses
27 Budgeted Income Statement STUDY OBJECTIVE 4 The important end-product of the operating budgets.indicates the expected profitability of operationsprovides a basis for evaluating company performanceThe budget is prepared from the:Sales budgetProduction budgetDirect labor budgetDirect materials purchases budgetManufacturing Overhead budgetSelling and Administrative expense budget
28 Computation of Total Unit Cost To find cost of goods sold for the Budgeted Income Statement it is necessary to determine the total unit cost of a finished product using the direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead budgets.Total unit cost $44.00
29 Budgeted Income Statement Cost of goods sold can then be determined by multiplying theunits sold by the unit cost. All data for the statement are obtainedfrom the operating budgets except: interest expense ($100) andincome taxes ($12,000).(From sales budget)(15,000 x $44)
30 Preparing the Financial Budgets STUDY OBJECTIVE 5 Cash budgetanticipated cash flowsoften considered to be the most important output in preparing financial budgetsThe cash budget contains three sections:Cash receiptsCash disbursementsFinancing
31 Basic Form of a Cash Budget The cash receipts section includes expected receipts from the company’s principal source(s) of revenue such as cash sales and collections from customers on credit sales.
32 Basic Form of a Cash Budget The cash disbursements section shows expected payments for direct materials, direct labor, manufacturing overhead, and selling and administrative expenses. This section also includes projected payments for income taxes, dividends, investments, and plant assets.
33 Basic Form of a Cash Budget The financing section shows expected borrowings and the repayment of the borrowed funds plus interest.This section is needed when there is a cash deficiency or when the cash balance is below management’s minimum required balance.
34 Collections from Customers Preparing a schedule of cash collections from customers isuseful in preparing a cash budget. Assuming that credit salesper the Sales Budget (amounts shown in parentheses below)are collected 60% in the quarter sold and 40% in the followingquarter. Accounts Receivable of $60,000 at December 31, 2004are expected to be collected in full the first quarter of 2005.$ 60,000108, $72,000126, $ 84,000144, $96,000162,000
35 Payments for Direct Materials A schedule of cash payments for direct materials is also useful in preparing a cash budget. Assume that 50% of direct materials purchased are paid for in the quarter purchased, 50% are paid in the following quarter, and an accounts payable balance of $10,600 on December 31, 2004 is paid for in the first quarter of The schedule of cash payments will be as follows:Amounts in parenthesestaken from direct materialpurchases budget$10,60012,600 $12,60014,600 $14,60016,600 $16,60018,600
36 Cash Budget Assume that ending cash is $38,500 for 2001 and marketable securities are expected to be sold for $2,000 cash in the firstquarter. Collections from customers was calculated in Illustration The receipts section of the Hayes Company cash budget is shown below:$38,000168, , , ,0002,000
37 Cash BudgetDirect materials amounts: taken from the schedule of payments for direct materials.Direct labor amounts: taken from Direct labor budget-100% paid in quarter incurred.Manufacturing overhead and selling and administrative expense amounts: all items except depreciation are paid in the quarter incurred.Management plans to purchase a new truck in the second quarter for $10,000.The company makes equal quarterly payments ($3,000) of its estimated annual income taxes.
38 Cash Budget23, , , ,20062, , , ,00053, , , ,30041, , , ,000,3, , , ,000Disbursements will be subtracted from Receipts in order to determineExcess (deficiency) of available cash over disbursements.
39 Cash BudgetAssuming that a minimum cash balance of $15,000 must be maintained,$3,000 of financing will be needed in the 2nd quarter. Loans must be paidback the next quarter (if there is sufficient cash) with interest.25, , , ,900,,$25, $15, $19, $37,900
40 Budgeted Balance Sheet A projection of financial position at the end of the budget period.Developed from the budgeted balance sheet for the preceding year and the budgets for the current year.Pertinent data for the following balance sheet are:Building and equipment $182,000 Accumulated depreciation $28,000 Common Stock $225,000Retained earnings $46,480
41 Budgeted Balance Sheet Sources and computations of the amounts in theAssets section of the Budgeted Balance Sheet areshown below:(Ending cash balance shown in cash budget)(Schedule of cash collections)(1,000 units x $44 -production budget)(1,020 lbs x $4 -direct materials budget)($182,000+$10,000- truck)($28,800 + $15,200 MOH budget and $4,000 S&A budget)
42 Budgeted Balance Sheet (50% of 4th Q purchases of $37,200 on schedule of expected payments)(Common Stock - Unchanged from beginning of year)(2001 balance of $46,480 + net income $47,900) found on Budgeted Income Statement
43 Budgeting in Non-manufacturing Companies STUDY OBJECTIVE 6 Budgets may also be used in by:MerchandisersService enterprisesNot-for-profit organizations
44 Merchandise Purchases Formula The major differences between the budgets of a merchandiser and a manufacturer are that a merchandiser:Uses a merchandise purchases budget instead of a production budget.Does not use the manufacturing budgets (direct materials, direct labor, and manufacturing overhead).Desired Ending Merchandise InventoryBeginning Merchandise InventoryRequired Merchandise PurchasesBudgeted Cost of Goods Sold
45 Computation of Required Merchandise Purchases Lima Company’s budgeted sales will be $300,000 in July and$320,000 in August. Cost of goods sold is expected to be 70% of sales, and the company’s desired ending inventory is 30% of the following month’s cost of goods sold. Required merchandise purchases for July are $214,200, computed as follows:Required merchandise purchases for July $214,000
46 Service Enterprises Critical factor in budgeting coordinating professional staff needs with anticipated services.If a firm is overstaffed:Labor costs will be disproportionately high.Profits will be lower because of the additional salaries.Staff turnover will increase because of lack of challenging work.
47 Service Enterprises If an enterprise is understaffed, Revenue may be lost because existing and prospective client needs for service cannot be met, andProfessional staff may seek other jobs because of excessive work loads.
48 Not-for-Profit Organizations Budgeting is just as important for not-for-profit organizations as for profit-oriented enterprises.In most cases, not-for-profit entities budget on the basis of cash flows (expenditures and receipts), rather than on a revenue and expense basis.The starting point in the budgeting process is usually expenditures, not receipts.
49 A sales budget is: Review derived from the production budget. management’s best estimate of sales revenue for the year.not the starting point for the master budget.prepared only for credit sales.
50 A sales budget is: Review derived from the production budget. management’s best estimate of sales revenue for the year.not the starting point for the master budget.prepared only for credit sales.