Presentation on theme: "Foundations of U.S.. Democracy (rule by the people) began in Ancient Greece in a response to Authoritarian governments. The Republic (rule by elected."— Presentation transcript:
Democracy (rule by the people) began in Ancient Greece in a response to Authoritarian governments. The Republic (rule by elected or nominated people) began in Rome but fell to emperors. Authoritarian governments continue until the Magna Carta (before this England had an absolute monarch until 1215). Now a common counsel formed to help make decisions like taxes and witnesses needed for trials. = constitutional monarchy Leads to Bicameral government system called Parliament= House of lords (nobles inherit seat) and House of commons (members are elected)= representative democracy. English Bill of Rights (1689) transforms government further giving parliament power to tax, make laws, and control the army. Common Law- laws based on precedent (previous rulings)= consistent rules and future decisions. (U.S. uses these ideas).
The Enlightenment Period brings a time of new ideas that influence the Declaration of Independence and our Constitution. – Thomas Hobbs: An English political thinker believed that without government life would be chaos and rely on strength and skill. – John Locke: An English writer who argued that people were born free, equal, independent, & had rights called natural rights (life, liberty, property) that no government can take away and if they did it broke a social contract. – Montesquieu: A French writer developed the idea of separating the branches of government to balance each other out, a separation of powers. – Rousseau: A French philosopher believing in majority rule, or in times of disagreement people will abide by what most people want.