2 General ScenarioFossil fuels are expected to dominate the world’s energy supply portfolio for some decade to come.However, satisfying future energy needs while meeting the challenge of energy security and mitigating the risk of climate change has brought energy conservation to the forefront of public discussion.Among renewables, wind, solar and biofuels are growing rapidly, albeit from a small base.Other technologies, such as hydrogen, are considered to hold promise, but face substantial challenges in terms of costs and large-scale implementation.
3 Solar Energy Conversion Biofuels ProductionSolar Energy ConversionLipids for biodieselConversion Processes(BtL, hydrogenation)phytoplankton, micro-algae, bacteriaPlants for energyCO2Sun lightBiodieselSolar energy concentrationNew photo-active material, nanotechnologyEnergy efficiency“Third Generation”PV SystemsHydrogenE. E. generation via Hybrid Cycles
4 BiofuelsBiofuels appear to be the only realistic short term solution to provide a renewable energy alternative to fossil fuels in the transportation sector.Their liquid nature and compatibility with traditional fuels are their main strength points.As a fuel product, biofuels offer a number of technical advantages: they are sulphur and aromatics free and have good combustion properties.However, biofuels have a lower heat content than petroleum derived fuels due to their oxygen content. This means that they are less efficient in terms of fuel economy (km per liter).
5 Energy Carriers for Transportation Fuels Existing infrastructure is a major barrier for any new fuel/energy carrier incompatible with it.Final UseCarrierProductionProcessStorageEnergySourceDistributionGasoline / DieselLPG (DME)Natural GasElectric PowerHydrogenBio-FuelsPerformance&Impact on Environment
6 Biofuels : current scenario The European Union requires biofuels (biodiesel + bioethanol) to reach 10% of total automotive fuel consumptions by the year 2020.US President has announced a target of 15% of the national gasoline pool by the year 2017.However, the current generation of biofuels cannot be an answer to market demand because of their scale limitations due to cost and large land requirements.Land use impacts, fertilizer requirements and water use are other important factors to be taken into account when considering the potential of biofuels.Competition “fuel versus food” is a major issue to be circumvented not to impact on the living of poorer mankind and on the prices of food staples.
7 Current liquid biofuels are mainly Bio-ethanol/ETBE and Biodiesel RapeseedBiodieselSugar canLow conversion efficiencyOnly a small portion of the biomass is converted to fuelLow yield per hectare (mainly for bio-diesel)Low energy efficiencyHigh production cost
8 New Generation Biofuels Current biofuel’s limitations are a technological challenge, stimulating intensive R&D efforts towards omnivorous, efficient conversion technologies able to:use massive low cost resource (e.g. agriculture/forest waste, wood, grass, cane, etc.)make the most of the biomass resourceintegrate with manufacturing infrastructureconvert biomass to market compatible fuels (e. g. gasoline, diesel)be linked to distribution infrastructurebe sustainable and economical
9 R&D activity on biofuels Medium to long term approach Biomass to Liquidsbiomass gasification followed by biofuel synthesiscompatible with ligno-cellulosic biomassfull use of input biomassstrong technical backgroundHigh yield biomass for energy use onlydatabase on biomass and relevant conversion routesMicro-organism based biofuelsno competition with edible cropsextremely high productivitydemo plant currently under evaluation
10 2nd Generation Biofuels Second generation biofuels are needed to close the gap:Require massive low cost resourceAg./forest waste, wood, grass, cane, …Want omnivorous, efficient conversion technologyMakes the most of the resourceShould integrate with manufacturing infrastructureLinked to distribution infrastructureNeed conversion to market compatible fuelGasoline, DieselOther issues: sustainability, economics
12 EcofiningTM processEsterification(conventional)Hydroprocessing(Green Diesel)VegetableOilMethanolHydrogenBiodieselGlycerolGreen dieselFEEDPROCESSPRODUCT(EcofiningTM)Alternative to conventional esterification, without glycerol co-productionHigh quality product (high heating value and cetane number, low density)A joint effort of UOP and Eni to develop a processing route to convert vegetable oil to high quality diesel using conventional hydroprocessing technology that is already widely deployed in refineries and utilizes the existing refinery infrastructure and fuels distribution system.
13 3rd Generation Biofuels Growing biomass by means of micro-organisms (such as phytoplankton, micro-algae, bacteria) to produce lipids suitable for conversion into diesel fuel.CO2 produced from power station and industrial plants can be used to feed the process (CO2 recycling and biofixation).Biomass CollectionLipid ExtractionCO2Open ponds,fotobioreactors orhybrid systemsConversion to Green DieselA promise of high productivity