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Presentation on theme: "Biofuels."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biofuels

2 General Scenario Fossil fuels are expected to dominate the world’s energy supply portfolio for some decade to come. However, satisfying future energy needs while meeting the challenge of energy security and mitigating the risk of climate change has brought energy conservation to the forefront of public discussion. Among renewables, wind, solar and biofuels are growing rapidly, albeit from a small base. Other technologies, such as hydrogen, are considered to hold promise, but face substantial challenges in terms of costs and large-scale implementation.

3 Solar Energy Conversion
Biofuels Production Solar Energy Conversion Lipids for biodiesel Conversion Processes (BtL, hydrogenation) phytoplankton, micro-algae, bacteria Plants for energy CO2 Sun light Biodiesel Solar energy concentration New photo-active material, nanotechnology Energy efficiency “Third Generation” PV Systems Hydrogen E. E. generation via Hybrid Cycles

4 Biofuels Biofuels appear to be the only realistic short term solution to provide a renewable energy alternative to fossil fuels in the transportation sector. Their liquid nature and compatibility with traditional fuels are their main strength points. As a fuel product, biofuels offer a number of technical advantages: they are sulphur and aromatics free and have good combustion properties. However, biofuels have a lower heat content than petroleum derived fuels due to their oxygen content. This means that they are less efficient in terms of fuel economy (km per liter).

5 Energy Carriers for Transportation Fuels
Existing infrastructure is a major barrier for any new fuel/energy carrier incompatible with it. Final Use Carrier Production Process Storage Energy Source Distribution Gasoline / Diesel LPG (DME) Natural Gas Electric Power Hydrogen Bio-Fuels Performance & Impact on Environment

6 Biofuels : current scenario
The European Union requires biofuels (biodiesel + bioethanol) to reach 10% of total automotive fuel consumptions by the year 2020. US President has announced a target of 15% of the national gasoline pool by the year 2017. However, the current generation of biofuels cannot be an answer to market demand because of their scale limitations due to cost and large land requirements. Land use impacts, fertilizer requirements and water use are other important factors to be taken into account when considering the potential of biofuels. Competition “fuel versus food” is a major issue to be circumvented not to impact on the living of poorer mankind and on the prices of food staples.

7 Current liquid biofuels are mainly Bio-ethanol/ETBE and Biodiesel
Rapeseed Biodiesel Sugar can Low conversion efficiency Only a small portion of the biomass is converted to fuel Low yield per hectare (mainly for bio-diesel) Low energy efficiency High production cost

8 New Generation Biofuels
Current biofuel’s limitations are a technological challenge, stimulating intensive R&D efforts towards omnivorous, efficient conversion technologies able to: use massive low cost resource (e.g. agriculture/forest waste, wood, grass, cane, etc.) make the most of the biomass resource integrate with manufacturing infrastructure convert biomass to market compatible fuels (e. g. gasoline, diesel) be linked to distribution infrastructure be sustainable and economical

9 R&D activity on biofuels Medium to long term approach
Biomass to Liquids biomass gasification followed by biofuel synthesis compatible with ligno-cellulosic biomass full use of input biomass strong technical background High yield biomass for energy use only database on biomass and relevant conversion routes Micro-organism based biofuels no competition with edible crops extremely high productivity demo plant currently under evaluation

10 2nd Generation Biofuels
Second generation biofuels are needed to close the gap: Require massive low cost resource Ag./forest waste, wood, grass, cane, … Want omnivorous, efficient conversion technology Makes the most of the resource Should integrate with manufacturing infrastructure Linked to distribution infrastructure Need conversion to market compatible fuel Gasoline, Diesel Other issues: sustainability, economics

11 2nd Generation Biofuels Biomass conversion Routes
BTL Fischer Tropsch Synthesis Gasification BIOMASS Vegetable Oil Hydro processing Green Diesel OIL SEEDS

12 EcofiningTM process Esterification ( conventional ) Hydroprocessing (Green Diesel) Vegetable Oil Methanol Hydrogen Biodiesel Glycerol Green diesel FEED PROCESS PRODUCT (EcofiningTM) Alternative to conventional esterification, without glycerol co-production High quality product (high heating value and cetane number, low density) A joint effort of UOP and Eni to develop a processing route to convert vegetable oil to high quality diesel using conventional hydroprocessing technology that is already widely deployed in refineries and utilizes the existing refinery infrastructure and fuels distribution system.

13 3rd Generation Biofuels
Growing biomass by means of micro-organisms (such as phytoplankton, micro-algae, bacteria) to produce lipids suitable for conversion into diesel fuel. CO2 produced from power station and industrial plants can be used to feed the process (CO2 recycling and biofixation). Biomass Collection Lipid Extraction CO2 Open ponds, fotobioreactors or hybrid systems Conversion to Green Diesel A promise of high productivity

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