2 Key Terms Louis XIV Sun King Edict of Nantes Bourbon Family FrondeAlsace-LorraineIntendantsPalace of VersaillesLeveeEdict of NantesDeclaration of Clergy of FranceJean Baptiste ColbertCode LouisWars of ExpansionRobert de La SalleLouisiana
3 BackgroundLouis XIV was born into the French Royal Family “The Bourbons”Mother could not have a child for 12 yearsBirth seen as a miracle"Louis-Dieudonné" (Louis the God-given)Father died in 1643Louis became king at age 4
4 Reign of Louis XIV Ruled France for 72 years Achievements: Longest in European historyAchievements:Centralized Power to an extent never seen in Modern EuropeExpanded French TerritoryMade France the greatest economic, political, and cultural power in EuropeBuilt the Palace of VersaillesLouis XIV can be seen as the quintessential absolute monarch due to his centralization of power, expansion of territory, and pursuit of personal glory.
5 OutlineI. Centralization of PowerII. ExpansionIII. Glory & Spending
6 I. Centralization of Power Reigning in the NobilityReligionMilitaryEconomyLaw
7 A. Reigning in of Nobility For centuries, nobles had unchecked powerRan the militaryRefused to obey lawsConstant insurrectionFronde (1648)- Insurrection by Nobles to keep feudal power, and not pay taxesLouis built the Palace of Versailles20 km outside of ParisForced Nobles to live thereNobles had to participate in courtly ritualsLouis could keep an eye on NoblesLevee – (rising) nobles competed to hold a wash basin for Louis in the morning.
8 A. Reigning in of Nobility Replaced Nobles with IntendantsNobles were loyal to the NobilityIntendants – officials loyal to Louis XIV
9 B. Religion Eliminating freedom of religion Louis cancelled the Edict of NantesEdict of Nantes (grandfather, 1598)– allowed freedom of religion for Hugenots (French Calvinists)Limits on the power of the Catholic ChurchDeclaration of Clergy of FranceLimited the Pope’s power in France, Louis had authority
10 C. Military Historically, French Nobles served as generals Often challenged the kingLouis built a strong centralized military loyal only to him.Nobles OUTAdministrators IN
11 D. Economy Louis arrested the old finance minister Accusation of EmbezzlementGave the post to a trusted allyJean Baptiste ColbertPracticed MercantilismMade France rich!!!
12 E. LawHistorically, France was ruled by several different codes of lawFeudal pastLouis instituted the Code LouisCentralized, uniform code of law for all of France
13 II. Expansion Wars in Europe Expansion in the Americas Foreign Diplomacy
14 A. Wars in Europe Louis expanded French territory through several wars Franco-Dutch WarGained lands in the Netherlands(from Spain)France remained as the Great PowerWar of the Grand AllianceEveryone vs. FranceLouis XIV gains Alsace RegionHalf of the Alsace-Lorraine RegionWar of Spanish SuccessionUltimately unsuccessful attempt to take over Spanish territories
15 Alsace-Lorriane – Region which France and Germanic Empires constantly fought over
16 B. Expansion in the Americas Robert de La Salle explored:Gulf of Mexico,Mississippi River,Great LakesEntire Mississippi River Basin claimed by FranceNamed?Louisiana – After Louis XIV
17 C. Foreign Diplomacy Opened diplomacy with the Ottomans TradeFound Pondicherry in IndiaMissionaries in China
18 III. Glory & Spending Lavish Lifestyle and Spending Diamond encrusted shoesExpensive parties dailyPalace of Versailles20 year constructionRegarded as the most magnificent palace in EuropeSymbol of the Wealth and absolute power of the “Sun King”Also a symbol of the monarchy’s alienation from the people