2 The Communication Process Cultural communications are deeper and more complex than spoken or written messages. The essence of effective cross-cultural communication has more to do with releasing the right responses than with sending the “right” messages.—Hall and Hall
3 The Communication Process Managers spend between 50% and 90% of their time talking to peopleManagers communicate to:Coordinate activitiesDisseminate informationMotivate peopleNegotiate future plans
5 For discussion:What are the most common barriers to communication between cultures?
6 Cultural NoiseCultural Noise – cultural variables that undermine the communication of intended meaningIntercultural communication – when the member of one culture sends a message to a member of another cultureAttribution – the process in which people look for an explanation of another person’s behavior
8 Trust in Communication Effective communication depends on informal understandings among individuals that are based upon trustWhen there is trust between individuals an implicit understanding in communication is present
9 Trust in Communication Guidelines for developing trustCreate a clear and calculated basis for mutual benefitHave realistic commitments and good intentions to honor themImprove predictability: resolve conflicts and keep communication openDevelop mutual bonding through socializing and friendly contact
10 For discussionHow can education help reduce or eliminate these barriers?
11 Cultural VariablesAttitudes – ethnocentric and stereotypical attitudes are a particular source of noise in cross-cultural communicationSocial Organization – nations, tribes, religious sects, or professions can influence our priorities and valuesThough Patterns – the logical progression of reasoning varies by culture
12 Cultural VariablesRoles – the perception of the manager’s role differs considerable around the world, consider the conversation between the American and GreekNonverbal Communication – behavior communicated without words; even minor variations in body language, speech rhythms, and punctuality can cause mistrust
13 Cultural VariablesLanguage – an inability to speak the local language, and a poor or too literal translation are often causes for mistrustPepsi’s slogan “Come Alive with Pepsi” translated into German as “Come out of the grave.”Rendezvous lounges on 747’s were not used on airlines because in Portuguese ‘rendezvous’ refers to prostitution
14 Cultural Variables - Language Britain and America are two nations separated by a common language.- George Bernard Shaw
15 Cultural Variables -Time Mono-chronic Cultures – Time is experienced in a linear manner; generally mono-chronic people concentrate on one thing at a time and adhere to time commitmentsPoly-chronic Cultures – Many things occur simultaneously and emphasize involvement with people
16 ContextContext in which the communication takes place affects the meaning and interpretation of the interactionCultures are either high- or low- context
18 For discussionWhat are the top three ways you could improve your own intercultural communication competence?
19 Appropriate Follow-Up Actions Respect (eye contact, posture, tone, etc)Interaction posture – ability to respond in a descriptive, non-evaluative, and non-judgmental wayOrientation to knowledge – understand that your beliefs and perceptions are only valid for you and not everyone elseEmpathy
21 Cultural SensitivityWhen sending a message make it a point to know the recipientEncode the message in a form that will most likely be understood as it is intendedThis means the manager mustBe aware of their own cultureThe recipient’s cultureThe expectations surrounding the situation