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Presentation on theme: "DNA."— Presentation transcript:



3 Fun DNA Facts! DNA is too small to see, but under a microscope it looks like a twisted up ladder! DNA stands for: D: Deoxyribose N: Nucleic A: Acid Every living thing has DNA. That means that you have something in common with a zebra, a tree, a mushroom and a beetle!!!!

4 DNA is the build block that makes up chromosomes

5 DNA History 1800’s Scientists know that the nuclei of cells contain large molecules called nucleic acids. 1950 chemist learn DNA is made of but not how it is arranged 1952 Rosalind Franklin that DNA is two chains of molecules in a spiral form

6 DNA FACTS established by James Watson and Francis Crick
Shape of a double helix

7 Base pairs 4 nitrogen bases (rungs of the DNA ladder)
Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine Which are abbreviated A, G, C, and T The amount of C = amount of G The amount of A= amount of T

8 A pairs with T and C pairs with G

9 Base Pair Rule One side:     A   T   A      T   C   A      T   G   C      G   G   G Other side:

10 How the Code Works The combination of A,T,G,C determines what traits you might have, for ex. C A T C A T   =  purple hair T A C T A C  =  yellow hair

11 DNA Replication DNA unzips and replicates new base pairs to match the existing ones on each strand

12 Genes Sections of DNA on a Chromosome
Contain instructions for making specific protein

13 Genes Contain the information needed to make specific proteins
Each chromosome contains hundreds of genes

14 RNA Ribonucleic Acid Like DNA but only one side of the ladder
3 kinds of RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) Transfer RNA (tRNA)

15 RNA - the messenger. single strand. ribose sugar
RNA - the messenger   *single strand *ribose sugar *contains no thymine, uracil instead *follows base pair rule DNA:   A  T  A   G  C  G RNA:  

16 RNA 2. RNA carries the codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm Messenger RNA carries the code that directs the order in which the amino acids bond Ribosomal RNA makes up Ribosomes, where proteins are built Transfer RNA brings amino acids to the ribosomes to build the protein. 3. Cells use only the genes that directs the making of proteins needed by that cell.

17 RNA carries the "message" to the ribosomes, where proteins are made

18 Mutations Can be caused by outside factors like Xrays, sunlight, and some chemicals have been know to cause mutations. A change in a gene or chromosome can change the traits of an organism.

19 DNA Molecule A. A = adenine B. T = Thymine C. Phosphate
D. Sugar (deoxyribose) E G = Guanine F C = Cytosine DNA

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