3 Fun DNA Facts!DNA is too small to see, but under a microscope it looks like a twisted up ladder!DNA stands for: D: Deoxyribose N: Nucleic A: AcidEvery living thing has DNA. That means that you have something in common with a zebra, a tree, a mushroom and a beetle!!!!
4 DNA is the build block that makes up chromosomes
5 DNA History1800’s Scientists know that the nuclei of cells contain large molecules called nucleic acids.1950 chemist learn DNA is made of but not how it is arranged1952 Rosalind Franklin that DNA is two chains of molecules in a spiral form
6 DNA FACTS established by James Watson and Francis Crick Shape of a double helix
7 Base pairs 4 nitrogen bases (rungs of the DNA ladder) Adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymineWhich are abbreviated A, G, C, and TThe amount of C = amount of GThe amount of A= amount of T
9 Base Pair RuleOne side: A T A T C A T G C G G GOther side:
10 How the Code WorksThe combination of A,T,G,C determines what traits you might have, for ex.C A T C A T = purple hairT A C T A C = yellow hair
11 DNA ReplicationDNA unzips and replicates new base pairs to match the existing ones on each strand
12 Genes Sections of DNA on a Chromosome Contain instructions for making specific protein
13 Genes Contain the information needed to make specific proteins Each chromosome contains hundreds of genes
14 RNA Ribonucleic Acid Like DNA but only one side of the ladder 3 kinds of RNAMessenger RNA (mRNA)Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)Transfer RNA (tRNA)
15 RNA - the messenger. single strand. ribose sugar RNA - the messenger *single strand *ribose sugar *contains no thymine, uracil instead *follows base pair rule DNA: A T A G C G RNA:
16 RNA2. RNA carries the codes for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasmMessenger RNA carries the code that directs the order in which the amino acids bondRibosomal RNA makes up Ribosomes, where proteins are builtTransfer RNA brings amino acids to the ribosomes to build the protein.3. Cells use only the genes that directs the making of proteins needed by that cell.
17 RNA carries the "message" to the ribosomes, where proteins are made
18 MutationsCan be caused by outside factors like Xrays, sunlight, and some chemicals have been know to cause mutations.A change in a gene or chromosome can change the traits of an organism.
19 DNA Molecule A. A = adenine B. T = Thymine C. Phosphate D. Sugar (deoxyribose)E G = GuanineF C = CytosineDNA