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Unit VC AP United States History

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1 Unit VC AP United States History
RECONSTRUCTION Unit VC AP United States History

2 Fundamental Question How did the Civil War change the political, social, and economical landscape of the United States? Did the Civil War and Reconstruction solve the problems and conditions that led to the sectional conflict?

3 Reconstruction, Phase 1 Lincoln’s Plan
Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (1863) Full presidential pardons for 1. Oath of allegiance, 2. Accept end of slavery Ten Percent Plan Confederate state reestablished once 10% of voters affirmed allegiance and loyalty Provide education and voting rights for blacks Wade-Davis Bill (1864) Bill required 50% voters to swear ironclad oath and non-Confederates Second Inaugural Address “with malice toward none; with charity for all” Louisiana as example of reconstructed state Lincoln’s Assassination April 14, 1865 by John Wilkes Booth in Ford’s Theater Johnson and rise of Radical Republicans…

4 Freedmen’s Bureau Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands in March 1865 Food, shelter, medicine for freed blacks and displaced whites Education of blacks and colleges Viciously attacked and ridiculed by Northern racists and bitter Southerners

5 Reconstruction, Phase 2 Andrew Johnson’s Plan
About Andrew Johnson Tennessee Democrat and Lincoln’s VP Represented more for poor whites against Southern “aristocracy” White supremacist Reconstruction Plan Pardons for loyalty oath No pardons for Confederate leaders and owned $20,000 taxable property Admitted Confederate states with appointed governors who established voting procedures for state legislatures States must abolish slavery and secession clauses

6 Result of Johnson Plan Johnson’s Pardons
Alexander Stephens (former CSA VP) elected Georgia U.S. Senator Johnson revokes General Sherman’s Special Field Orders, No. 15 40 acres and a mule for each former slave family Readmitted states complied but did not provide provisions for blacks to vote Black Codes Prohibited renting land or borrowing to buy land Contract-labor systems No testifying against whites, curfews, no jury service, restricted commerce Race Riots Memphis (May 1-3, 1866) Shooting between white policemen and discharged black Union soldiers precipitated white-led rioting against black neighborhoods 46 blacks and 2 whites killed; 91 homes, 4 churches, 8 schools burned down New Orleans (July 30, 1866) Radical Republicans call convention to oppose black codes; leads to public commotion of bitter white Democrats against black parade marchers 34 blacks and 3 Radicals killed The Johnson Vetoes Freedmen’s Bureau Bill - appropriations, protect from Black Codes Civil Rights Bill of prohibits Black Codes, secures voting rights Mid-Term Election of 1866 and the Radical Republicans “Waving the Bloody Shirts” during campaign “Not every Democrat was a rebel, but every rebel was a Democrat!” Republicans controlled 2/3 of both houses

7 Reconstruction, Phase 3 Radical Plan
Republicans led by Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner overrode Johnson’s vetoes “state suicide” and “conquered provinces” Reconstruction Acts of 1867 Confederate leaders disavowed Johnson-based state governments replaced with military districts under martial law Former Confederate states may be admitted if… Ratify the Fourteenth Amendment Enfranchise blacks and former slaves


9 Radical Legislation Fourteenth Amendment (1868)
Anyone born or naturalized was American citizen (Citizenship Clause) “nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law” (Due Process Clause) “nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws” (Equal Protection Clause) Disavowed Confederate leaders; not paying state debt; penalty for preventing voters Johnson Impeachment (Feb.-May, 1868) Political ploy by Radical Republicans with Tenure of Office Act Acquitted by one vote Fifteenth Amendment (1869) Blacks have right to vote Civil Rights Act of 1875 Equal accommodations for blacks; participation on juries Other goals and reforms Infrastructure, penal and institutional development and codification, women property rights, public education

10 Freedmen in the South Political Recognition
Right to vote Elected to state and national legislatures 2 U.S. Senators and a dozen Representatives 630 black state legislators Black governor of Louisiana Anger and resentment by Southern whites Desire for autonomy: independent churches, schools, move out West Exodusters Sharecropping White landowners provided seed and farm supplies for as much as half of production Tenant Farming White landowners provided land, but not tools and supplies Only 5% of southern blacks claimed economic independence

11 Northern Influence on the South
Republicans and Northerners in the South Scalawags Southern Republicans fostering American System-type programs Cooperated with Northern politics and economics Carpetbaggers Northerners investing in “New South,” reformers/provide aid squatters and plunderers

12 Southern Life under Reconstruction
Political Corruption Reconstruction state governments influenced by carpetbaggers and scalawags Southern perception of corruption steadily increased and white Democrats return to dominate state legislatures Public services greatly improved State-funded public education Infrastructure Railroads, utilities, waterways Modernized hospitals and prisons Highly susceptible to corruption and spending cuts Economics Sharecropping and tenant farming not very productive Crop-liens Cash crops over food crops slowed Southern recovery Cotton production significantly decreases in the early years of Reconstruction As cotton plantations recover and more farmland converted to cotton, prices decrease due to overproduction and profits decrease for farmers Led to foreclosures, more sharecropping and tenant farming Tax rates and collection increased

13 White Southern Resistance
Paramilitary groups based on white supremacy The South Will Rise Again! White League Openly criticized, attacked, killed Republicans and freedmen Ku Klux Klan (1867) Nathaniel Bedford Forrest “invisible empire” to scare or destroy Republicans and freedmen Force Acts ( ) disband KKK “The Union as it Was” Harper’s Weekly October 1874

14 The North As the South struggled to recover, Republicans pursued economic expansion through industry and infrastructure Political and Financial Corruption Abuse of patronage (spoils system) Grant’s connection to stock market speculation, tax fraud, embezzlement Political Machines Network of elected officials, businessmen, “behind-the-scenes” people to command the vote Typically run by an authoritative boss or leadership group Patronage and spoils system Provide for underprivileged, immigrants, businesses in return for votes William “Boss” Tweed and Tammany Hall (Democrats in NYC) Reaction to Radical Republicanism Racism entrenched in the North Immigrants and poor whites feared losing economic opportunities to freedmen and entitled blacks

15 Evolution of Northern Attitude Toward Blacks During Reconstruction
Shown through the political cartoons of Thomas Nast of Harper’s Weekly “And Not This Man?” August 1865 “This Is A White Man’s Government” September 1868 “Colored Rule in a Reconstructed State” March 1874

16 Election of 1868 Republicans Democrats
Nominate war hero General Ulysses S. Grant Democrats Nominate Horatio Seymour Radical Republican legislatures in the South limited Democratic influence

17 Grantism Civil War hero, but no political experience; linked with moderates and Radicals Scandalous Administration Black Friday Scandal (1869) Jim Fiske and Jay Gould attempted to corner gold market Had Grant’s brother-in-law convince Grant to halt gold sales Salary Grab Act (1873) Double salaries of Congress retroactive to beginning of ending terms Credit Mobilier Union Pacific Railroad creates dummy construction company to hire execs at inflated salaries and earn high dividends Sold stock to Republican congressmen and bribed press to keep quiet Sanborn Contract Fraud Congressman John Sanborn hired private tax collector for 50% of commission, some of which went to Republican campaign funds Whiskey Ring Republicans embezzled liquor tax revenues using bribes and networks Secretary of War W.W. Belknap Accepted bribes for trader contract (Fort Sill) Amnesty Act of 1872 Election of 1872

18 Panic of 1873: The Long Depression
Causes Expansion of railroads, enterprises in industries and mines outpaces market demand Coinage Act of 1873 Demonetizes silver contracting the money supply “Crime of 73” Jay Cooke & Company bankrupt Major financing investment firm leads to chain reaction of banks Effects Contractionary monetary policy increases interest rates Harder to acquire or afford new loans Over 100 railroads fail; 16,000 businesses fail Unemployment at 14%

19 “Election” of 1876 Samuel Tilden (D) Rutherford B. Hayes (R) Republicans struggle to nominate “boring” Rutherford B. Hayes Democrats nominate solid and popular Samuel J. Tilden Tilden won the popular vote solidly and needed only 1 more electoral vote for majority Contested electoral votes in 3 Reconstruction states (Louisiana, South Carolina, Florida) Electoral Commission rewarded 3 sets of electoral votes to Hayes Split ideologically 8-7 in favor of Republicans

20 Compromise of 1877 Angry Democrats and riots around the nation due to Hayes’ “victory” forced a deal Hayes will become president, if… Remove federal troops from the South Help develop infrastructure in South, ex. Railroads Appoint Southerner to Cabinet Limited enforcement of racial equality End of Reconstruction With no enforcement by federal troops, civil rights limited or eliminated in the South Democrats return to power in the South Redemption Democratic state governments take hold of former Confederate states Democrats had majorities in House of Representatives in 1875 and also the Senate in 1877

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