2 The Odyssey: Part 2In part 1 of the Odyssey, Odysseus and his companions face many perils on their voyage from Troy to Ithaca. At some moments, they are tempted to forsake their voyage; at others, their lives are endangered by powerful enemies. Ultimately, Odysseus’ men bring about their own destruction at the hand of Zeus when they kill the cattle belonging to Helios.As part 2 begins, Odysseus is alone when he reaches Ithaca (home) after a 20 year absence. What do you predict will happen when Odysseus arrives home?
3 The story continues…Coming Home Book 13 Odysseus is laden with giftsReturned in secret to Ithaca in one of the magically swift Phaeacian ships.In Ithaca, Athena appears to the hero.Because his home is full of enemies, she advises him to proceed disguised as a beggar.This new hero of the postwar age must succeed not only by physical powers but also by intelligence.
4 The story continues…Coming Home Book 14 Odysseus, in his beggar's disguise, finds his way to the hut of his old and trusty swineherd, Eumaeus.Eumaeus is the very image of faithfulness in a servant – a quality much admired by Homer’s society.The introduction of members of the so-called servant class as important actors is unusual in epic poetry, and it indicates Homer’s originality.Odysseus is politely entertained by Eumaeusthe king remains disguised from his old servant.
5 The story continues…Coming Home Book 15 Athena appears to Odysseus’ son, Telemachus.Gone to Pylos and Sparta to talk to old friends of his father’s to try to discover if Odysseus is alive or dead.Athena advises him to return to Ithaca.His home – the palace of Odysseus – is overrun with his mother’s suitors.Arrogant men have taken over Odysseus’ house.Partying with money from the son’s inheritence and are demanding that his mother, Penelope, take one of them as a husband. Athena warns Telemachus that the suitors plan to ambush him.Telemachus boards a ship for home, lands secretly on Ithaca, and heads towards the cottage of the swineherd.
6 The story continues…Coming Home As father and son move closer and closer together, the suspense becomes great.Most dramatic moment in the epic.Remember that Odysseus has not seen his son for TWENTY years.Telemachus has been away from Ithaca for one year.
7 The story continues…The Meeting of Father and Son Telemachus goes to the swineherd (where his Odysseus is in disguise) and he learns that Penelope is besieged by suitors.Penelope still grieves for her lost husband and refuses to get married.The 3 men eat a meal and then the swineherd goes to Penelope to tell her of her sons return.When he leaves, the goddess Athena appears and transforms Odysseus to his youthful self so that his son could see and know him for who he is.Odysseus cried.
8 The story continues…The Beggar and the Faithful Dog Telemachus returns home and is greeted by his mother and his old nurse, Eurycleia.A soothsayer has told Penelope that Odysseus is alive but her son does not tell her it is true.Odysseus and the swineherd walk into Ithaca. No one recognizes him except Argos, his old dog.When Argos sees Odysseus, he wags his tail, greats him, and then dies.A soldier and his dog.
9 The story continues…The Beggar and the Faithful Dog In the hall, the “beggar” is taunted by the evil suitors, but Penelope supports him.She has learned that the ragged stranger claims to have news of her husband.Unaware of who the beggaris, she invites him to visither later in the night to talkabout Odysseus.
10 The story continues…Book 18 Penelope appears among the suitors and reproaches Telemachus for allowing the stranger to be abused.Warmed her husband’s heart by doing this and by singing the praises of her lost Odysseus.
11 The story continues…Book 19 Suitors depart for the night, and Odysseus and Telemachus discuss their strategy.The clever hero goes to Penelope’s room so she can questions himHe wants to testing her and her maids. (Some of the maids have been sleeping with suitors.)Tells her how he has met Odysseus in his travels.Praises the lost heroBrings tears to Penelope’s eyes.Pleases Odysseus
12 The story continues…Book 19 The beggar reveals that he has heard that Odysseus is alive and sailing home.Penelope calls for the old nurse and asks her to wash his feeta sign of respect and honor.As Eurycleia does so, she recognizes Odysseus from a scar on his leg.Quickly he makes her swear to secrecy
13 The story continues…Book 19 Meanwhile, Athena has cast a spell on Penelope so that she has taken no notice or recognition of the scene.Penelope adds top the suspense by deciding on a test for the suitors on the next day.Tells Odysseus she is tired of being courted and want to end itWithout realizing it, she has now given Odysseus a way to defeat the men who threaten his wife and kingdom.
14 The story continues…Book 20 Odysseus, brooding over the shameless behavior of the maidservants and the suitors, longs to destroy his enemies but fears the revenge of their friends.Athena reassures him. Odysseus is told that the suitors will die.
15 The story continues…The Test of the Great Bow In Book 21, Penelope like many unwilling princesses of myth, fairy tale, and legend, proposes an impossible task for those who wish to marry her The test involves stringing Odysseus’ huge bow, an impossible feat for anyone by Odysseus himself. He had left his bow home in Ithaca 20 years ago.
16 The story continues…The Test of the Great Bow Penelope creates task for suitors to complete in order to marry herMust string Odysseus’ bow and shoot an arrow through the sockets of twelve axe handlesHe had left his bow home in Ithaca 20 years ago.Odysseus takes the bow and makes the shot!Telemachus arms himself and goes to stand by his father. Odysseus is back!
17 An Ancient Gesture By Edna St. Vincent Millay I thought, as I wiped my eyes on the corner of my apron: Penelope did this too. And more than once: you can’t keep weaving all day And undoing it all through the night; Your arms get tired, and the back of your neck gets tight; And long towards morning, when you think it will never be light, And your husband has been gone, and you don’t know where, for years, Suddenly you burst into tears; There is simply nothing else to do. And I thought, as I wiped my eyes on the corner of my apron: This is an ancient gesture, authentic, antique In the very best tradition, classic, Greek; Ulysses did this too. But only as a gesture, - a gesture which implied To the assembled throng that he was much too moved to speak. He learned it from Penelope… Penelope, who really cried.
18 An Ancient Gesture By Edna St. Vincent Millay What does the word this refer to?Penelope did this too.What might “weaving” stand for in this metaphor?And more than once: you can’t keep weaving all day/And undoing it all night.How does this litany of words and phrases with positive connotations alter the tone of the poem?This is an ancient gesture, authentic, antique,/In the very best tradition, classic, Greek;Is this a fair comment to make about Odysseus? Explain.But only as a gesture, - a gesture which implied/To the assembled throng that he was much too moved to speak/He learned it from Penelope…/Penelope, who really cried.The “ancient gesture” of the title: wiping away tearsKeeping a brave front during the day when with others; any type of repetitive busywork that helps to pass the long days of waiting.The tone changes from one of weary resignation to one of self-affirmation; the speaker seems to be reciting the positive terms as a way of pulling herself together.Yes, because Odysseus is very preoccupied with his image and often does thing merely for affect. OR No, because Odysseus is capable of crying openly as he did when he was reunited with his son.
19 Is Odysseus a hero by American standards and morals today? Explain. Journal #5Is Odysseus a hero by American standards and morals today? Explain.
20 Readings: Death at the Palace The climax of the story is here. Odysseus is ready to claim his rightful kingdom. But first he must deal with more than 100 you and hostile suitors. The first one he turns to is Antinous. All through the story, Antinous has been the meanest of the suitors and their ringleader. He hit Odysseus with a stool when the hero appeared in the hall as a beggar, and he ridiculed the disguised king by calling him a bleary vagabond, a pest and a tramp.
21 Readings: Death at the Palace What planning does Odysseus do before he battles the suitors?How does his planning help him defeat his opponents?What does Odysseus’ action tell us about him as a person?Are his actions justified?Are his actions heroic by our standards today?
23 Readings: Odysseus and Penelope Why do you think Homer contrasts Odysseus appearance and physical attractiveness to when he was dressed as beggar?Who do you think suffered greater hardships – Odysseus or Penelope? Explain?
24 The story ends…Book 23 & 24Say all of the commotion of the battle was actually Penelope’s weddingPenelope doesn’t believe that Odysseus is truly back and that he’s a fakeOdysseus mentions the secret about how he built and carved their entire bedroom around an olive treePenelope now believes him and runs into the arms of her husband
25 The story ends… Odysseus is reunited with his father. Athena commands that peace prevail between Odysseus and the relatives of the slain suitors.Odysseus has regained his family and his kingdom.
26 Ithaca C. P. Cavafy, translated from Greek by Edmund Keeley and Philip Sherrard When you set out for Ithaca, pray that your road’s a long one, full of adventure, full of discovery. Laistrygonians, Cyclops, angry Poseidon—don’t be scared of them: you won’t find things like that on your way as long as your thoughts are exalted, as long as a rare excitement stirs your spirit and your body. wild Poseidon—you won’t encounter them unless you bring them along inside you, unless your soul raises them up in front of you. Pray that your road’s a long one. May there be many a summer morning when— full of gratitude, full of joy— you come into harbors seen for the first time; may you stop at Phoenician trading centers and buy fine things, mother-of-pearl and coral, amber and ebony, sensual perfumes of every kind, as many sensual perfumes as you can; may you visit numerous Egyptian cities to fill yourself with learning from the wise. Keep Ithaca always in mind. Arriving there is what you’re destined for. But don’t hurry the journey at all. Better if it goes on for years so you’re old by the time you reach the island, wealthy with all you’ve gained on the way, not expecting Ithaca to make you rich. Ithaca gave you the marvelous journey. Without her you wouldn’t have set out. She hasn’t anything else to give. And if you find her poor, Ithaca won’t have fooled you. Wise as you’ll have become, and so experienced, you’ll have understood by then what an Ithaca means.
27 Ithaca by C.P. CavafyWhat do you think Cavafy is suggesting in the line “pray that your road’s a long one”?What does Cavafy mean in lines 4 – 14?Do you think Odysseus would agree with Cavafy’s advice in lines 25 – 31?What do you think Ithaca symbolizes in this poem?He means that you should hope that your life is long and varied; he means that you should not dread getting older but consider each added year a gift.He means that life is what you make of it; he means that many of our troubles are self inflicted.No, Odysseus just wanted to get home as fast as possible OR Yes, Odysseus relished his adventures, even though he missed home.Heaven, death, one’s goal in life, one’s ideal place in the world, old age
29 Themes The Power of Cunning over Strength If the Iliad is about strength, the Odyssey is about cunning.Odysseus relies much more on mind than muscle. . .He knows that he cannot overpower Polyphemus, and that, even if he were able to do so, he wouldn’t be able to budge the boulder from the door. He thus schemes around his disadvantage in strength by exploiting Po1yphemus’s stupidity.Penelope’s clever notion of not remarrying until she completes a burial shroud which she will never complete buys her important time.
30 Themes Reputation, Kleos In the world of Odysseus, one’s, ones most treasured possession is his good reputation, kleos.Kleos (Greek: κλέος) is the Greek word often translated to "renown", or "_______________". It is related to the word "to hear" and carries the implied meaning of "what others hear about you". A Greek hero earns kleos through accomplishing great deeds, often through battle.One’s reputation is determined by how others view him, assessing his character, values, and behavior according to the prevailing social strandards and mores.Zues himself affirms Odyssesu’s character.Apparently all the gods, except vengeful Poseidon, hold Odysseus in high regard.
31 Themes The Pitfalls of Temptation The submission to temptation or recklessness either angers the gods or distracts Odysseus and the members of his crew from their journey: they yield to hunger and slaughter the Sun’s flocks, and they eat the fruit of the lotus and forget about their homes.
32 Themes The Pitfalls of Temptations Even Odysseus’s hunger for kleos is a kind of temptation.He submits to it when he reveals his name to Polyphemus, bringing Poseidon’s wrath upon him and his men.In the case of the Sirens, the theme is revisited simply for its own interest. With their ears plugged, the crew members sail safely by the Sirens’ island, while Odysseus, longing to hear the Sirens’ sweet song, is saved from folly only by his foresighted command to his crew to keep him bound to the ship’s mast.Homer is fascinated with depicting his protagonist tormented by temptation: in general, Odysseus and his men want very desperately to complete their nostos, or homecoming, but this desire is constantly at odds with the other pleasures that the world offers.
33 Themes Respect for the Gods Respect for the gods is shown through the numerous descriptions of sacrifices and offerings. Disrespect for the Gods inevitably leads to disaster; the Gods do not forget disrespect and are not easily appeased. (Poseidon, Athena, Helios.)The Importance of LineageAlmost every time we met someone significant the narration pauses and we learn of the lineage.Many "things" we see also have a lineage or history that we are given - note Odysseus scar and his bow.FateFate is preordained by a power beyond that of even the gods.Paradoxically, it does not seem "random." A character's fate is tied up with his "character."
34 ThemesHospitalityThe social concept of hospitality is essential to both major plots in the Odyssey.In fact, this concept was also the reading for the Trojan War in the Iliad. Paris breaches the hospitality of King Menelaus when he runs off with – or steals Menelaus’s wife, Helen and takes her back to troy with him.In the Odyssey, the reader first sees hospitality exploited by Penelope’s suitors. They have turned Odysseus’ home into their own private party hall and spend most of their time feasting and drinking at the host’s expense.
35 ThemesRevengeUnderlying the theme of revenge is the situation at Odysseus’ household.The suitors would not dare such offensive behavior if Odysseus were around or if they anticipated his return.They think he is dead.Only a few have any really hope of marrying Penelope and through that union have a better chance of becoming the new king.AntoniusThe rest are simply taking advantage of the situation.
36 ThemesPowerAntonius broaches the topic of power when he challenges Telemachus’ capacity to reign. He acknowledges the prince’s right to rule but hopes that Zeus will never make him King.He wants to marry Penelope for the crown.
37 JournalWrite a 5 paragraph essay discussing 3 of the major themes in the Odyssey.
39 Oh Brother, Where Art Thou? O Brother, Where Art Thou? is a 2000 adventure comedy film written, produced, edited, and directed by Joel and Ethan Coen, and starring George ClooneySet in 1937 rural Mississippi during the Great Depression, the film's story is a modern satire loosely based on Homer’s epic poem, Odyssey.Much of the music used in the film is period folk musicThe movie was one of the first to extensively use digital color correction, to give the film an autumnal, sepia-tinted look.The film received positive reviews, and the American folk music soundtrack won a Grammy for Album of the Year in 2001.
40 Oh Brother Where Art Thou? As you watch the film complete the handout given and pay special attention to parts of the story that are also found in the Odyssey.
41 JournalWhat a 5 paragraph essay comparing and contrasting the Odyssey to the film Oh Brother, Where Art Thou?