Presentation on theme: "Human Reproductive Anatomy and Processes"— Presentation transcript:
1Human Reproductive Anatomy and Processes Chapter 34
2KEY CONCEPT Female and male reproductive organs fully develop during puberty.
3The female reproductive system produces ova. There are two main functions of the female reproductive system.produce ova, or egg cellsprovide a place where a zygote developsuteruscervixrectumvaginaurethraurinary bladderpubic boneovaryfallopiantube
4Estrogen has three main functions. develop female sexual characteristicsdevelop eggsprepare uterus for pregnancy
5The male reproductive system produces sperm. There are two main functions of the male reproductive system.produce sperm cellsdeliver sperm to the female reproductive systemurinary bladdervas deferenspubic boneprostate glandpenisurethratestisscrotumepididymisbulbourethralglandrectumseminal vesicle
6Testosterone has two main functions. developing male sexual characteristicsproducing sperm
7KEY CONCEPT Human reproductive processes depend on cycles of hormones.
8Eggs mature and are released according to hormonal cycles. potentialeggfirst polarbodysecond polarovum (egg)Meiosis ICompletedMeiosis IIonly afterspermentersFollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH) regulate egg production.meiosis produces eggs and polar bodieseach egg has 23 chromosomesmeiosis is completed at fertilization
9FSH, LH, and estrogen stimulate the release of eggs. follicle ruptures at ovulationegg travels into fallopian tuberuptured follicle becomes corpus luteumfallopiantubeegg cellegg releasedcorpus luteumuterine wallovaryfollicleuterus5 to 7 days to uterus
10Eggs mature and are released according to hormonal cycles. The menstrual cycle has three phases.flow phase: endometrium shedsfollicular phase: ovulation occursluteal phase: corpus luteum forms
11The menstrual cycle stops at menopause. cycle continues until a woman’s mid-40’s or 50’sdecline in hormone levels make cycles irregulareventually, cycle stops altogether
12Sperm production in the testes is controlled by hormones. Testosterone, FSH, and LH stimulate sperm production.one sex cell divides into four spermeach sperm has 23 chromosomespotentialsperm4 sperm cellsMeiosis IMeiosis II
13Sperm cells fully mature in the epididymis. head contains acrosomemidpiece contains ATPtail allows mobilityacrosomeheadmidpiecetailmitochondrianucleus with 23 chromosomes
14Fertilization occurs when a sperm cell joins an egg cell. Sperm penetrates an egg.membrane keeps out other spermnucleus of sperm joins with eggzygote formed
15Multiple zygotes can result from fertilization. identical twins from the same eggfraternal twins from two separate eggsInfertility makes reproduction difficult or impossible.
16Sexually transmitted diseases affect fertility and overall health. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are passed from one person to another during sexual contact.bacterial STDs include chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrheaviral STDs include hepatitis B, genital herpes, human papillomavirus, and HIVHIV
17Viral STDs can be treated, but there is no cure for these diseases. Bacterial STDs can be treated, and in many cases, cured with antibioticsA parasite causes trichomoniasis, which can affect fertility.Viral STDs can be treated, but there is no cure for these diseases.STDs attack reproductive organs.can cause infertilityuntreated, some can be fatalSTDs can be avoided by abstinence or by using a condom.