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Human Reproductive Anatomy and Processes

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1 Human Reproductive Anatomy and Processes
Chapter 34

2 KEY CONCEPT Female and male reproductive organs fully develop during puberty.

3 The female reproductive system produces ova.
There are two main functions of the female reproductive system. produce ova, or egg cells provide a place where a zygote develops uterus cervix rectum vagina urethra urinary bladder pubic bone ovary fallopian tube

4 Estrogen has three main functions.
develop female sexual characteristics develop eggs prepare uterus for pregnancy

5 The male reproductive system produces sperm.
There are two main functions of the male reproductive system. produce sperm cells deliver sperm to the female reproductive system urinary bladder vas deferens pubic bone prostate gland penis urethra testis scrotum epididymis bulbourethral gland rectum seminal vesicle

6 Testosterone has two main functions.
developing male sexual characteristics producing sperm

7 KEY CONCEPT Human reproductive processes depend on cycles of hormones.

8 Eggs mature and are released according to hormonal cycles.
potential egg first polar body second polar ovum (egg) Meiosis I Completed Meiosis II only after sperm enters Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH) regulate egg production. meiosis produces eggs and polar bodies each egg has 23 chromosomes meiosis is completed at fertilization

9 FSH, LH, and estrogen stimulate the release of eggs.
follicle ruptures at ovulation egg travels into fallopian tube ruptured follicle becomes corpus luteum fallopian tube egg cell egg released corpus luteum uterine wall ovary follicle uterus 5 to 7 days to uterus

10 Eggs mature and are released according to hormonal cycles.
The menstrual cycle has three phases. flow phase: endometrium sheds follicular phase: ovulation occurs luteal phase: corpus luteum forms

11 The menstrual cycle stops at menopause.
cycle continues until a woman’s mid-40’s or 50’s decline in hormone levels make cycles irregular eventually, cycle stops altogether

12 Sperm production in the testes is controlled by hormones.
Testosterone, FSH, and LH stimulate sperm production. one sex cell divides into four sperm each sperm has 23 chromosomes potential sperm 4 sperm cells Meiosis I Meiosis II

13 Sperm cells fully mature in the epididymis.
head contains acrosome midpiece contains ATP tail allows mobility acrosome head midpiece tail mitochondria nucleus with 23 chromosomes

14 Fertilization occurs when a sperm cell joins an egg cell.
Sperm penetrates an egg. membrane keeps out other sperm nucleus of sperm joins with egg zygote formed

15 Multiple zygotes can result from fertilization.
identical twins from the same egg fraternal twins from two separate eggs Infertility makes reproduction difficult or impossible.

16 Sexually transmitted diseases affect fertility and overall health.
Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are passed from one person to another during sexual contact. bacterial STDs include chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea viral STDs include hepatitis B, genital herpes, human papillomavirus, and HIV HIV

17 Viral STDs can be treated, but there is no cure for these diseases.
Bacterial STDs can be treated, and in many cases, cured with antibiotics A parasite causes trichomoniasis, which can affect fertility. Viral STDs can be treated, but there is no cure for these diseases. STDs attack reproductive organs. can cause infertility untreated, some can be fatal STDs can be avoided by abstinence or by using a condom.

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