Presentation on theme: "Human Reproductive Anatomy and Processes Chapter 34."— Presentation transcript:
Human Reproductive Anatomy and Processes Chapter 34
KEY CONCEPT Female and male reproductive organs fully develop during puberty.
The female reproductive system produces ova. There are two main functions of the female reproductive system. produce ova, or egg cells provide a place where a zygote develops uterus cervix rectum vagina urethra urinary bladder pubic bone ovary fallopian tube
Estrogen has three main functions. –develop female sexual characteristics –develop eggs –prepare uterus for pregnancy
The male reproductive system produces sperm. There are two main functions of the male reproductive system. produce sperm cells deliver sperm to the female reproductive system urinary bladder vas deferens pubic bone prostate gland penis urethra testis scrotum epididymis bulbourethral gland rectum seminal vesicle
Testosterone has two main functions. –developing male sexual characteristics –producing sperm
KEY CONCEPT Human reproductive processes depend on cycles of hormones.
Eggs mature and are released according to hormonal cycles. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH) regulate egg production. meiosis produces eggs and polar bodies each egg has 23 chromosomes meiosis is completed at fertilization potential egg first polar body second polar body ovum (egg) Meiosis I Completed Meiosis II Completed only after sperm enters
FSH, LH, and estrogen stimulate the release of eggs. –follicle ruptures at ovulation –egg travels into fallopian tube –ruptured follicle becomes corpus luteum fallopian tube egg cell egg released corpus luteum uterine wall ovary follicle uterus 5 to 7 days to uterus
Eggs mature and are released according to hormonal cycles. The menstrual cycle has three phases. flow phase: endometrium sheds follicular phase: ovulation occurs luteal phase: corpus luteum forms
The menstrual cycle stops at menopause. –cycle continues until a woman’s mid-40’s or 50’s –decline in hormone levels make cycles irregular –eventually, cycle stops altogether
Sperm production in the testes is controlled by hormones. Testosterone, FSH, and LH stimulate sperm production. one sex cell divides into four sperm each sperm has 23 chromosomes potential sperm 4 sperm cells Meiosis I Meiosis II
acrosome head midpiece tail mitochondria nucleus with 23 chromosomes Sperm cells fully mature in the epididymis. –head contains acrosome –midpiece contains ATP –tail allows mobility
Fertilization occurs when a sperm cell joins an egg cell. Sperm penetrates an egg. membrane keeps out other sperm nucleus of sperm joins with egg zygote formed
Multiple zygotes can result from fertilization. –identical twins from the same egg –fraternal twins from two separate eggs Infertility makes reproduction difficult or impossible.
Sexually transmitted diseases affect fertility and overall health. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are passed from one person to another during sexual contact. –bacterial STDs include chlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea –viral STDs include hepatitis B, genital herpes, human papillomavirus, and HIV HIV
Viral STDs can be treated, but there is no cure for these diseases. STDs attack reproductive organs. can cause infertility untreated, some can be fatal STDs can be avoided by abstinence or by using a condom. A parasite causes trichomoniasis, which can affect fertility. Bacterial STDs can be treated, and in many cases, cured with antibiotics