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Warm-up Aug. 13 6. Backcountry farmers grew only enough crops to feed their families, which is called A. plantation farming B. rotation planting.

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Presentation on theme: "Warm-up Aug. 13 6. Backcountry farmers grew only enough crops to feed their families, which is called A. plantation farming B. rotation planting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm-up Aug. 13 6. Backcountry farmers grew only enough crops to feed their families, which is called A. plantation farming B. rotation planting C. mercantilism D. subsistence farming

2 Warm-up Aug. 14 8. Which person does not belong in the following list and why? Lord Baltimore Roger Williams Sir Walter Raleigh William Penn

3 England and the Colonies Prosper

4 England and Its Colonies Prosper
Colonies export raw materials, Britain manufactures goods Purpose of the colonies was to make Britain prosper Mercantilism—economic system to make a nation self-sufficient - Nation obtains gold, silver, and establishes a favorable balance of trade Colonist began exporting goods directly to other European countries - Made more money

5 England and Its Colonies Prosper
British pass Navigation Acts in 1651 to control colonial trade - Required that all foreign goods pass through English ports - Required that all good be carried on English or colonial ships - Created jobs for dockworkers and ship builder Colonial merchants resented the laws - Continued to smuggle goods - Howard Teach became the most famous smuggler (Blackbeard)

6 Crackdown in Massachusetts
1684 – King Charles II punished the colonist he felt most resisted British authority - Massachusetts merchants - England revoked Massachusetts corporate charter and made it a royal colony 1885 – James II became king In 1685, King James creates Dominion of New England - Land from southern Maine to New Jersey united into one colony - To make colony more obedient, Dominion placed under single ruler Governor Sir Edmund Andros antagonizes Puritans, merchants Abolished colonial assemblies (Caused tensions with colonies)

7 Glorious Revolution King James unpopular in England: is Catholic, disrespects Parliament James wanted to return England to Catholicism (gets kicked out) Glorious Revolution—Parliament asserts its power over monarch, 1689 - Parliament crowns Mary (James’s daughter) and William of Orange Glorious Revolution – showed that government was based on law not the whims of kings - Authority of the king came from Parliament not God

8 Glorious Revolution English Bill of rights (a list)
-No taxation without representation -No cruel or unjust punishment, - Free speech in parliament -No imprisonment without a trial, -The right to petition -The right to bear arms -The right to trial by jury Massachusetts colonists arrest Governor Andros and royal councilors 1691 – England restored Massachusetts’ charter (Changed) King appointed a royal governor Required more religious toleration and non-Puritan representation in the colonial assembly Ended Puritan persecution of other groups

9 England Loosens the Reigns
England turned its attention towards France after 1688 - Competing for control of Europe Passed laws to tighten the Navigation Acts but didn’t enforce them - Smuggling trials in admiralty courts with English judges, no juries - Board of Trade has broad powers to monitor colonial trade Salutary Neglect – England didn’t enforce the regulations in exchange for colonies continued economic loyalty

10 Colonial Government King appointed a governor appointed in nearly every colony - Governor was assisted by a council (wealthy planters) Also had elected assemblies - Had to be a white male property holder to vote Council had to approve any laws passed by the assemblies Governor had the power to call and disband the assemblies, appoint and dismiss judges, and oversee all aspects of colonial trade The colonial assembly paid the governor’s salary -Used the power of money to influence the governor’s decisions Colonist developed a taste for self government

11 Zenger Trial John Peter Zenger was newspaper owner who criticized a corrupt governor in New York (William Cosby) Crosby had Zenger arrested - It was illegal for anything to be printed that “expressed an ill will opinion” of the government or its officers

12 Zenger Trial Zenger’s defense argued that a newspaper should have the right to print what is true even if it criticized the government - Jury sided with Zenger Established Freedom of the Press - Newspapers can print what is true

13 Colonial Regions Grouped into three regions -New England -Middle
- Southern Geography influenced economy Each region had its own unique culture

14 Plantation Economy Shaped the southern colonies
- Maryland, Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia Depended on growing cash crops and slave labor - Tobacco and Rice Long, deep rivers allow planters to ship goods directly to markets Plantations produced most of what farmers needed on their property - Few cities grew: warehouses, shops not needed Southern population mostly small farmers Planters are minority but control economy By mid-1700s, growth in export trade makes colonies prosperous

15 The Role of Women Women have few legal or social rights, little formal schooling Most women cook, clean, garden, do farm chores Rich and poor women must submit to husbands’ will

16 Turn to Slavery Turned to African slavery after Indians died
Slaves—people who are considered the property of others 1660s – South’s labor system began changing from indentured servants to slavery New planter class gained power in Virginia (Cavaliers) English colonists increasingly unable to enslave Native Americans Indentured servant price rises; slaves work for life, are better buy Most white colonists think Africans’ dark skin justifies slavery

17 Turn to Slavery 3-way triangular trade network ties colonies, Africa, West Indies: - New England exports rum to Africa - Africa exports slaves to West Indies - West Indies export sugar, molasses to New England

18 Turn to Slavery The Middle passage—middle leg of transatlantic trade, transports slaves - 20% or more of Africans on ship die from disease, abuse, suicide - Slaves were crowded together (Many died) - Beaten if they refused to eat or tried to jump overboard - Overloaded the boats by 1/3

19 Elite Planter Class Cavaliers grew rich from slavery
- Purchased more slaves - Grew more tobacco Small farmers couldn’t compete - Many were forced to move west Cavaliers differed in how they treated slaves - Some felt responsibility for taking care of their slaves - Some were tyrants who used force to control slaves

20 Growth of Plantations Black population grew rapidly in the Southern Colonies - Rose from 6 % in % to Over 20% in 1700 Plantation farming grew in South Carolina and Georgia Grew rice in the lowlands - Had to drain swamps and clear land - Plantation owners sought out slaves who were from Africa’s rice growing regions Grew Indigo in the uplands - Started by Eliza Lucas - Could raise it on land not suitable for rice

21 Life Under Slavery Small Farms - People who owned only a few slaves worked side by side with them - Shared same living area - Treated like indentured servants - Often taught to read and write and given chance to purchase freedom - Common outside the south Plantations -Worked in groups of 20-25 80–90% of slaves work in fields; 10–20% work in house or as artisans - Slaves work full-time from age 12 until death - Owners beat, whip slaves considered disobedient, disrespectful Planters feared a slave uprising

22 Life Under Slavery 1739 Stono Rebellion Slaves rebelled near Charles Town - Killed planter families - militia defeated slaves (Killed fighting or executed) Passed Slave codes –Harsh laws that controlled the treatment of slaves - Prohibited slaves from leaving the plantation without permission - Forbid slaves to meet with free blacks - Forbid slaves to learn how to read or write

23 Life Under Slavery Africans resisted slavery in several ways
- Some used violence - Others worked slowly - Damaged goods - Deliberately carried out orders incorrectly Africans on plantations developed a new way of life in their living quarters -Merchants, owners split families; slaves raise children left behind - Preserved many of the African customs such as music dances and crafts - For a while many held on to traditional religions and Islam as well

24 New England Colonies


26 Life in the New England Colonies
Farming was difficult in the Region Low mountains and rocky soil Long cold winters Atlantic ocean was their main resource

27 Fishing and Shipbuilding in New England
Settlers switched from farming to fishing Good harbors and rich fishing areas Region had abundance of wood to build ships Boston became the richest American colonial town

28 Whaling on Nantucket Island was within easy reach of a migration stream Whale blubber was used for oil and candles Bones were used to make umbrellas, corsets, and hairbrushes Boys attended school until age 12 Served a 2 year apprenticeship as a cooper (Barrel maker) Went to sea at age 14

29 Atlantic Trading Patterns
New England became part of the Triangular Trade Triangular trade enabled New England traders to profit enormously from the slave trade

30 African Americans in New England
Little slavery in New England - Didn’t need large amounts of unskilled labor New England slave owners differed from Southern slave owners - Often provided religious and educational instruction More free blacks lived in New England than any other region - Became merchants, sailors, printers and carpenters Were NOT treated as equals to whites

31 Roles of Women Women and girls did jobs associated with household
- Made candles, soap, and butter - Spun cloth, weaved, washed, and cooked Some women had special skills within the community - Helped deliver babies - Run a Dame school (Home where young children were taught to read and write) Widows, women who never married or wives of seagoing fishermen often entered business - Printers, merchants, carpenters, and ship owners

32 Changes in Puritan Society
Late 1600s – New England had moved away from the church-centered society Caused by growing prosperity and the end of Puritan political control New Generation of colonist didn’t share their parent’s strict religious views - Valued wealth Puritan Ministers began complaining that their “city on the hill” was full of greedy merchants

33 Witchcraft Trials in Salem
In 1692 – Several young girls made false accusations of witchcraft - Led to trials and hysteria Many accusers were poor who brought charges against rich Several victims were women considered too independent Hundreds of people were accused of witchcraft or dealing with the devil Nineteen people were hanged after being charged with witch craft during the Salem Witch Trials Showed that a society can create scapegoats for its problems

34 The Enlightenment For centuries philosophers used reason, science to explain world Enlightenment—movement in 1700s emphasized reason, observation Enlightenment ideas spread quickly through books, pamphlets

35 The Enlightenment Benjamin Franklin embraced Enlightenment ideas
- Kite experiment Other colonial leaders also adopted Enlightenment views Thomas Jefferson used reason to conclude people had natural rights that government must respect

36 The Great Awakening 1720 – Only 25% of New Englanders belonged to a church - Lower in other colonies Educated men became lawyers and merchants rather than ministers 1730s and 1740s – New religious movement roared through colonies - Minister went from town to town - Held revival meetings and urged people to return to their faith

37 The Great Awakening Movement was led by Jonathan Edwards
- He described the agonies of hell and urged people to repent their sins - preaches people are sinful, must seek God’s mercy George Whitfield – Traveled the colonies and gave “fireand brimstone sermons”

38 The Great Awakening Great Awakening had several effects
- People returned to the church (responded to new energetic preachers) - A sense of equality among American arose - Everyone was seen as equal in God’s eyes - Many people began calling each other brother and sister - People began reaching out to African Americans and Indians - Jonathan Edwards became a missionary to Indians in Massachusetts - Interest in learning increases; Protestants found colleges

39 Middle Colonies


41 A Farm and City Life in the Middle Colonies
Consisted of New York, New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania Region had a wealth of resources - Rich soil, good growing season, and several large rivers with good harbors New York City – Mouth of the Hudson River Philadelphia – located on the Delaware river which drained into Delaware Bay Colonist came from farming traditions - Germany, Switzerland, and Holland - Skills enabled them to produce large amounts of food for export - Wheat production earned the colonies the nickname “Bread basket”

42 The Pennsylvania Germans
Most arrived as indentured servants German communities could be identified by huge barns, stout workhorses and sleek cattle

43 The Pennsylvania Germans
Built Conestoga wagons to carry produce to market - Wide wheel base - Curved bed to prevent spills - Canvas top to protect contents - Later used to carry pioneers into new territory Developed skills such as iron working, glass making and furniture building Differed from Puritans and Quakers due to the fact they enjoyed decorating what they made

44 The Importance of Mills
Mills –Machines that process materials such as grain Lumber mills, iron works, paper mills and Gristmills Most were ran by water power - A few were ran by wind or animal power Gristmill was the most common - Ground grain into flour - Used two large stones (Could adjust the setting to make fine flour or course meal) - Largest mills were in Pennsylvania, New Jersey and Delaware People in Middle colonies ate about a pound of grain a day (3 times as much as we eat today)


46 Philadelphia’s Prosperity
Growing commerce and a supply of skilled artisans led to small scale manufacturing in Middle colonies Large Scale manufacturing occurred in shipbuilding 1750 – Region led the colonies in shipbuilding Philadelphia was the main shipbuilding area - Philadelphia second largest city in British empire; has urban plan Used wealth to build a state of Pennsylvania house (Independence Hall) Lighted and Paved Streets Established a fire department and library Benjamin Franklin was behind many of the improvements

47 A Climate of Tolerance Life was shaped by a number of groups
-Variety of Languages Differed from the other two regions - New England – Puritans / Southern – Cavaliers Earliest settlers practiced religious tolerance - Quakers in Pennsylvania and Dutch in New York Quakers believed man and women were equal - Many women became preachers Quakers were the first people to speak out against slavery

48 The Backcountry

49 Life in the Backcountry
Inland settlers differed from people on the coast Wore simple clothing Spoke plain talk Believed in equality, self-sufficiency and elbow room

50 Geography of the Backcountry
1700s – Area along the Appalachian Mountains Started at the fall line in the South - Point at which waterfalls made river navigation impossible Piedmont was beyond the fall line - Broad Plateau leading to the Blue Ridge Mountains Numerous Springs and steams made it easy for small family farms to prosper

51 Settling the Backcountry
Indian traders were the first Europeans to move into the backcountry Deerskins were used as currency Cattle ranchers and then settler followed the traders Resulted in clashed between settlers and Indians Many backcountry settlers became self-sufficient farmers Cleared land built log Cabin, and planted garden 1600s =- People moved to backcountry to escape plantation agriculture Large estates were crowding out small farmers 1700 – Scots-Irish became the first group of people to go directly from England to the backcountry

52 The Scots-Irish Came from the borderland between Scotland and England
- Some had settled in Northern Ireland before coming to America Lived in an area that England and Scotland fought over for centuries - Relied on family rather than government - Distrusted outsiders - Always ready for a fight - Valued liberty, religion, and responsibility 1707 – Scotland and England united as Great Britain - Land developers and tax collectors invaded their land plus crop failures - Migrated to America

53 The Scots-Irish Arrived in Philadelphia and then moved to the backcountry - Brought families with them (Most important social unity in the backcountry) People were linked together by a network of kin relationships - Clan included people with common ancestors and the same last name - Banded together when danger threatened and were suspicious of outsiders - Even marriages were likely to occur with the clan

54 Backcountry Life Typical homestead was the log Cabin
- Introduced by the Swedes - Became common after the Scots-Irish arrived Ideal for Backcountry - Could be built quickly (Ax) Pegs lined then inside of the cabin - Used to hang family’s clothes (also served as decorations) - Sign of wealth or poverty

55 Backcountry Life Clothing
- Women wore homespun clothing, and bonnets and went barefoot in warm weather - Men wore a long hunting shirt with large sleeves - Linen in summer deer skin in the winter - Carried a bullet bag, knife and tomahawk on their belt People in the backcountry treated each other as equals although some were wealthier than others - Called each by first name Spread knowledge through ballads, folksongs, and folktales rather than books

56 French and Indian War “Seven Years War”

57 New France Samual Champlain founded Quebec (capital of New France) French were mostly male fur traders, government officials and missionaries based their North American empire on trade France had better relationship with the Indians Missionaries also treated Indians with respect Began encouraging settlement after they become concerned that English and Dutch were competing in the fur trade

58 LaSalle Looked for the Northwest Passage
led expedition down the Ohio River (stopped when he realized the river flowed south.

59 (French priest) (fur trader) Jacques Marquette and Louis Joliet
1673 -Sailed down the Mississippi to Arkansas Afraid of the Spanish

60 Claiming Louisiana LaSalle led an expedition down the Mississippi River to the Gulf of Mexico Named Louisiana after King Louis XIV Planned to build a string of forts from the Gulf of Mexico to the Great Lakes Disastrous Settlement -Sailed into the Gulf of Mexico -Lost all of their ships -Men rebelled and killed LaSalle

61 Controlling the Mississippi
Wanted to keep England from expanding Jean Baptiste de Bienville - oversaw the French settlements - Fort at Biloxi New Orleans built France had two main access points to the American interior - St Lawrence River and the Mississippi River

62 Wars over Fur Trade England and France competing over the fur trade
Indians caught in the middle Iroquois were the most powerful Indian group - Formed League of the Iroquois (consisted of 5 Indian Group) England and France fought two wars over the fur trade - Didn’t change the Balance of Power

63 English Population Growth
Changed the balance of power between France and England Land speculators - began planning for a settlement in the Ohio Valley France began building forts along its rim to prevent English settlement

64 Albany Plan of Union Ben Franklin’s plan calling for the colonies to unite Each colony would send delegates (patterned after the League of Iroquois) Colonies rejected the Albany Plan - Didn't want to give up power or pay taxes for joint defense


66 At the Forks of the Ohio French built Fort Duquesne
Where Allegheny and Monongahela rivers meet to form the Ohio

67 At the Forks of the Ohio George Washington sent to tell the French to leave. - Land claimed by Virginia - Governor ordered him to force the French out Washington built another fort (Fort Necessity) Battle at Fort Necessity – 1st battle of the French and Indian War - Became part of the Seven Years War


69 Early French advantages
One Government England lost its Indian Allies – They wanted to be on the wining side Controlled access to the interior Used Guerrilla warfare

70 Edward Braddock Failed to drive the French out of the Ohio Valley
ambushed by French soldiers dressed like Indians Suffered Casualties - wounded or dead 2/3 of the army (also included women) Braddock also killed

71 William Pitt Became England's Prime Minister
Spent large amounts of money on the war Forced England into debt Persuaded colonies to furnish more troops and money England recaptures Fort Duquesne (rename it Pittsburg)

72 Battle of Quebec Most important battle of the war (turning point)
Quebec seemed unconquerable (location) England wins and goes on to take Montreal

73 Treaty of Paris (1763) Formally ended the French and Indian War
England took France's lands east of the Mississippi Spain had to give England Florida (sided with France in the war) France gave Spain New Orleans and its claim to all of Louisiana west of the Mississippi


75 Pontiacs Uprising British didn't like Indians
-British officer Jeffrey Amherst sent blankets with smallpox Pontiac - holy man led rebellion against the colonist Leads a rebellion and forces colonist out of then Ohio Valley Drove the colonist out of the Ohio Valley England had to decide best way to keep peace in America

76 Pontiacs Uprising Proclamation of 1763—colonists cannot settle west of Appalachians


78 British Policies Anger Colonists
Halt to western expansion upsets colonists Tensions in Massachusetts increase over crackdown on smuggling Writs of assistance allow searches of ships, businesses, homes - British had cracked down on smuggling during war

79 Problems Resulting from the War
Colonists felt threatened by British troops stationed in colonies Prime Minister George Grenville sets policies to pay war debt Parliament passes Sugar Act (1764): - Duty on foreign molasses halved - New duties placed on other imports - Smuggling cases go to vice-admiralty court

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