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Warm up Religion. What is a religion?

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Presentation on theme: "Warm up Religion. What is a religion?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Warm up Religion. What is a religion?
What questions does religion try to answer?

2 Religious Discussions
We teach about religions. We will be respectful. We won’t speculate about Truth (capital T). Every religion tells us something about humanity. Every religion can look strange from outside.

3 Religion often includes:
a set of beliefs and stories explaining the cause and purpose of the universe, A description of what happens to us when we die, Rituals and practices that are part of the worship of a God or gods, a moral and ethical code to guide human behavior, An organized community of believers.

4 Religion Vocab Orthodoxy- following established/official teachings.
Doctrine/Dogma- Official teachings, beliefs. Blasphemy-  offense of speaking sacrilegiously about God or sacred things Heresy- a belief or theory that goes against orthodoxy (established teachings). Schism- A division within a religious group. Sect- a religious sub-group (a group w/i a group). Sectarian Violence- violence inspired by religious sects

5 What is a “universal” or “world” religion?
List the 5 characteristics (from your reading)

6 What contributed to the rise of world religions?

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8 Population (of approximately7.125 Billion):
Let’s Compare Population (of approximately7.125 Billion): Christianity: approximately 2 billion (1) Islam: approximately 1.3 billion (2) Judaism: approximately 14 million (12) Agnostic, Atheist, Non-Affiliated, Secular—1.1 billion Hinduism—1 billion Traditional Chinese—394 million Buddhism—376 million

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12 The Abrahamic Religions
Judaism Christianity Islam All come from Abraham. All are monotheistic All tell the story of Abraham in their holy books.

13 Let’s Compare Islam Judaism Christianity Founded 622 CE 1800 (?) BCE
c. 33 CE Founder Muhammad Abraham, Moses Jesus Followers Muslims Jews Christians Major Area Middle East, SE Asia Israel, Europe, USA Europe, N/S America, Africa Sacred Text Qur’an Bible (Torah (5)/OT) Bible (OT+NT) Clergy Imams Rabbis Priests, Ministers Church/State Integrated Separate Expansion Arabian Peninsula (12 yrs), Atlantic-China (100 yrs) Little expansion, remained mostly in Palestine Major cities (60 yrs), Roman Empire by 4th Century Islam Judaism Christianity Muslims Jews Christians Allah Yahweh God (Trinity) 622 1800 (?) BCE 33 (?) CE Qu’ran Torah Bible (OT + NT)

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15 The Origins of Judaism Land and Religion
Why was ancient Palestine such an interesting place? Where did Abraham and his family come from? What is the relationship between Yahweh and the Hebrews? How was Abraham’s God (Yahweh) different from other Gods?

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18 This is called The Covenant (a covenant is an agreement)
God promises to protect Abraham’s people from their enemies , and give them the land of Canaan (Israel). In return, Hebrews promise to obey God (Yahweh) This is called The Covenant (a covenant is an agreement)

19 The Exodus Later the Hebrews suffered from the failure of their crops. They moved to Egypt, but over time they were made into slaves. After many years, they left in a mass departure that Jews called the Exodus. According to the sacred book of the Jews, a man named Moses led them out of Egypt. They wandered 40 years in a wilderness.

20 The Second Covenant During that time, the story says, Moses received from God the Ten Commandments on Mt. Sinai. These were the laws that the Hebrews were to follow. For the second time, God promised to protect these people in return for their obedience to his laws.

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22 The Ten Commandments Similar to Hammurabi’s code?
A new covenant for the Jewish people Graven Image=Idol worship (worshipping a physical representation of the gods) How are the Ten Commandments: Similar to Hammurabi’s code? Different from Hammurabi’s Code?

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24 Comparing Hammurabi and 10 Commandments
Similar in some respects, but strict penalties softened by God’s mercy. First four commandments are not specific laws but guidelines on how to live a moral life and worship God (convenant). Interpreted by prophets (religious teachers) who focused more on equality before the law.

25 Duties of the Hebrews The Hebrews had other leaders called prophets. They said that they were messengers sent by God to tell the people how he wanted them to act. These prophets told the people that they had two duties: 1. To worship God 2. To deal in just and fair ways with each other.

26 Significance of Monotheism
With monotheism, religion was changing. Instead of being a part of life run by priests who followed certain rituals, it was now a matter of each person living a moral life. The idea emerged that each individual was important and valuable to God; and God was accessible to everyone, not just the priests.

27 Palestine 3000 years ago: David v. Goliath

28 Palestine today: Young Palestinians v. Israel

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30 Who said it? “Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, and pray for those who mistreat you.”

31 The Teachings of Jesus If someone takes your coat, let him have your shirt as well. Give to everyone who asks for something, and when someone takes what is yours, do not ask for it back. Do for others only what you would want them to do for you.

32 Jesus Member of the Roman Empire. Firm believer in Judaism.
Jesus was Jewish.

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34 The Jewish Diaspora 70 CE-1948 CE

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36 Who said it? “Love your enemies, do good to those who hate you, bless those who curse you, and pray for those who mistreat you.”

37 Jesus and the Romans Why do you think that the Romans felt threatened by this poor carpenter?

38 From a Roman perspective, why did Jesus have to die?
•    Because he disturbed Roman order. •    Because he spoke seditiously of a coming kingdom other than that of Caesar. •    Because he allowed himself to be called “King of the Jews.” •    Because he made a nuisance of himself at the wrong time (Passover), in the wrong place (Jerusalem), in the presence of the wrong people (Pilate and the temple leadership under his command). •    Because his crucifixion would be a powerful deterrent that might keep other Jews from following in his footsteps.

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41 The Crucifixion of Jesus
Common form of torture and capital punishment used by the Roman Empire.

42 INRI- “Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews”
"Iesvs Nazarenvs Rex Ivdaeorvm." “Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews”

43 Paul and Constantine How does Paul advance Christianity?
How does Constantine advance Christianity? What is the Edict of Milan? What is the Council of Nicea?

44 Saint Paul Spread the Gospel of Christianity throughout the Roman Empire. Preached that anybody could become a Christian, not just Jews. Christianity: a universal religion.

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46 Hard Power and Soft Power
Hard Power: The use of physical force and economic threats to change people’s behavior. Soft Power: The ability to attract people to your idea without force, to get them to change their behavior willingly through persuasion. Thesis Statements (with two pieces of evidence for each) Which type of power explains the survival and spread of Christianity?

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48 Rise and spread of Islam

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50 Islam initially spread by war

51 From India to Southern France in 100 years

52 Libraries: who was doing their summer reading?
In the 1300s, libraries in Baghdad (not in Europe, but in the Islamic World) contained 400,000 books. Most libraries in Europe had only several hundred books.

53 Long before the Europeans, Muslim and Chinese doctors:
learned to use sedatives pioneered the use of antiseptics to clean wounds used sutures to bind wounds Described how blood circulated in the body Used eyeglasses Practiced vaccination/innoculation against disease

54 In 1095 Pope Urban II set off 200 years of Crusades against Muslims in the Holy Land

55 . “All who die by the way, whether by land or by sea, or in battle against the pagans, shall have immediate remission of sins. This I grant them through the power of God with which I am invested.”

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58 Children’s Crusades


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