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Norms and Social Structure

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Presentation on theme: "Norms and Social Structure"— Presentation transcript:

1 Norms and Social Structure
Unit 1 (Chapters 3&4)

2 Traditional American Values
Personal Achievement, Work, Individualism Morality and Humanitarianism Examples? Efficiency and Practicality Progress and Material Comfort Success through Hard Work Equality and Democracy Equal opportunity and Earning Respect/Success Freedom

3 Enforcing Norms Internalization Sanctions
Process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual’s personality Sanctions Rewards and punishments used to enforce conformity to the norms

Sanctions: rewards or punishments used to enforce conformity to norms Internalization: how a norm becomes part of a person’s personality, causing them to conform to society’s expectations Positive: action that rewards a particular kind of behavior Negative: punishment or the threat of punishment to enforce conformity Formal: reward or punishment by a formal organization or regulatory agency, such as a school Informal: spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval by an individual or group

5 Social Structure Key Questions
What is “Social Structure”? What are the two major components of social structure? How do these two components of social structure affect human interaction?

6 Status and Roles Firefighter Mother P.T.A. President Status
Examples of Roles Examples of Conflict / Strain Put out fires, save lives, wear a uniform Voluntarily puts self in danger, but has loved ones who need him or her Firefighter Provide food and shelter, nurture family, discipline children Fatigue and long shifts make household tasks and interactions difficult Mother Run meetings, recruit new members, plan activities Has trouble getting members to attend and follow through on promises P.T.A. President

7 Social Structure Exchange—interacting in an effort to receive a reward or a return for one’s actions Competition—two or more people or groups are in opposition to achieve a goal that only one can attain Conflict—deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person

8 Accommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation—stabilize social structure
Cooperation—two or more people or groups working together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one of them Accommodation—a state of balance between cooperation and conflict Accommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation—stabilize social structure Competition and Conflict—can disrupt social structure

9 Competition Exchange Conflict Cooperation Accommodation Types of
Social Interactions Conflict Cooperation Accommodation

10 Societies Preindustrial—food production is the main economic activity; can be subdivided according to the level of technology and the method of producing food Industrial—emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goods, made possible by changes in production methods Postindustrial—much of the economy is involved in providing information and services

11 Preindustrial Industrial Postindustrial
Types of Societies Hunting and gathering; pastoral; horticultural; mechanical solidarity Manufacturing; urbanization; technology Organic solidarity Information; provision of services

12 Types of Societies (Characteristics)
Leadership, Family, Work, Specialization, Trade (Mead, Murdock) 2 types of Groups in Society Primary, Secondary

13 Groups Primary Secondary
Interact over a long period of time on a direct and personal basis Entire self of the individual is taken into account Relationships are intimate and often face-to-face Communication is deep and intense Structure is informal Interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature Involve a reaction to only a part of the individual’s self Casual Limited in personal involvement Individual can be replaced easily

14 GROUP FUNCTIONS Define Boundaries Select Leaders Assign Tasks
Set Goals Make Decisions Control Members’ Behavior

15 The Structure of Formal Organizations
Head of the Bureaucracy (CEO, Superintendent, president, etc.) (subordinates) Department Head/VP Department Head/VP (subordinates)

16 Max Weber Division of labor Ranking of authority
Employment based on formal qualifications Rules and regulations Specific lines of promotion and advancement

17 Bureaucracy Effectiveness
Efficient at coordinating large numbers of people, defining tasks and rewards Provide stability Can lose sight of goals, create red tape, and result in oligarchies In some instances, reward incompetence and expand uncontrollably

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