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Unit 1 (Chapters 3&4).  Personal Achievement, Work, Individualism  Morality and Humanitarianism  Examples?  Efficiency and Practicality  Examples?

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 1 (Chapters 3&4).  Personal Achievement, Work, Individualism  Morality and Humanitarianism  Examples?  Efficiency and Practicality  Examples?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 1 (Chapters 3&4)

2  Personal Achievement, Work, Individualism  Morality and Humanitarianism  Examples?  Efficiency and Practicality  Examples?  Progress and Material Comfort  Success through Hard Work  Equality and Democracy  Equal opportunity and Earning Respect/Success  Freedom

3  Internalization  Process by which a norm becomes a part of an individual’s personality  Sanctions  Rewards and punishments used to enforce conformity to the norms

4 ENFORCEMENT OF SOCIAL NORMS Negative: punishment or the threat of punishment to enforce conformity Formal: reward or punishment by a formal organization or regulatory agency, such as a school Informal: spontaneous expression of approval or disapproval by an individual or group Positive: action that rewards a particular kind of behavior Internalization : how a norm becomes part of a person’s personality, causing them to conform to society’s expectations Sanctions: rewards or punishments used to enforce conformity to norms

5  What is “Social Structure”?  What are the two major components of social structure?  How do these two components of social structure affect human interaction?

6 StatusExamples of RolesExamples of Conflict / Strain Firefighter Mother P.T.A. President Put out fires, save lives, wear a uniform Voluntarily puts self in danger, but has loved ones who need him or her Fatigue and long shifts make household tasks and interactions difficult Provide food and shelter, nurture family, discipline children Run meetings, recruit new members, plan activities Has trouble getting members to attend and follow through on promises

7  Exchange —interacting in an effort to receive a reward or a return for one’s actions  Competition —two or more people or groups are in opposition to achieve a goal that only one can attain  Conflict —deliberate attempt to control a person by force, to oppose someone, or to harm another person

8  Cooperation —two or more people or groups working together to achieve a goal that will benefit more than one of them  Accommodation —a state of balance between cooperation and conflict  Accommodation, Exchange, and Cooperation — stabilize social structure  Competition and Conflict —can disrupt social structure

9 Types of Social Interactions Exchange Competition Conflict Cooperation Accommodation

10  Preindustrial —food production is the main economic activity; can be subdivided according to the level of technology and the method of producing food  Industrial —emphasis shifts from the production of food to the production of manufactured goods, made possible by changes in production methods  Postindustrial —much of the economy is involved in providing information and services

11 Preindustrial Industrial Postindustrial Types of Societies Hunting and gathering; pastoral; horticultural; mechanical solidarity Organic solidarity Manufacturing; urbanization; technology Information; provision of services

12  Leadership, Family, Work, Specialization, Trade (Mead, Murdock)  2 types of Groups in Society  Primary, Secondary

13 PRIMARYSECONDARY  Interact over a long period of time on a direct and personal basis  Entire self of the individual is taken into account  Relationships are intimate and often face-to-face  Communication is deep and intense  Structure is informal  Interaction is impersonal and temporary in nature  Involve a reaction to only a part of the individual’s self  Casual  Limited in personal involvement  Individual can be replaced easily

14 GROUP FUNCTIONS Define Boundaries Control Members’ Behavior Set Goals Assign Tasks Select Leaders Make Decisions

15 Head of the Bureaucracy (CEO, Superintendent, president, etc.) (subordinates) Department Head/VP (subordinates)

16  Division of labor  Ranking of authority  Employment based on formal qualifications  Rules and regulations  Specific lines of promotion and advancement

17  Efficient at coordinating large numbers of people, defining tasks and rewards  Provide stability  Can lose sight of goals, create red tape, and result in oligarchies  In some instances, reward incompetence and expand uncontrollably


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