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Faculty of Education Additional Qualifications Summer 2009 Module 03 André Samson Ph.D., c.o.

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Presentation on theme: "Faculty of Education Additional Qualifications Summer 2009 Module 03 André Samson Ph.D., c.o."— Presentation transcript:

1 Faculty of Education Additional Qualifications Summer 2009 Module 03 André Samson Ph.D., c.o.

2 Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009 Overview of the Presentation 1. Evolution of the Concept of Work 1.1 Emergence of a Global Economy 1.2 Workplace and Globalization 2. The Canadian Workforce 2.1 Increase in the Number of Jobs 2.2 Lower Unemployment Rate 2.3 Participation Rates 2.4 Transformation of the Workforce 2.5 Demographic Pressures 2.6 Conditions of Success st Century Work Ethic

3 Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009 Career counselling is not intended to help the individual make immediate decisions, rather it provides each individual with the tools to make permanent career choices and decisions. OCDE, (2003). Orientation professionnelle: nouvelles pistes de réflexion. Une analyse des politiques déducation. Paris

4 1.1 Emergence of a Global Economy The collapse of the tariff barriers to trade and the emergence of international economies have contributed to a global economy Both public and private organisations are forced to develop and operate in a growing competitive context This global competition has forced organisations to continually adapt and reinvent themselves Furthermore, technological advances are also playing an important role in this global economy OCDE, (2003). Orientation professionnelle: nouvelles pistes de réflexion. Une analyse des politiques déducation. Paris Additional Qualifications – Summer Evolution of the Concept of Work

5 Additional Qualifications – Summer Evolution of the Concept of Work

6 1.2 Workplace and Globalization Today, we see a divide in the workforce between smaller jobs and ones that are well remunerated – Moving from one sector to another is becoming more and more difficult There is a higher unemployment rate among people who are less qualified Knowledge and specialized training now give access to upper levels of the workforce There is not one career path to follow anymore Guichard, J. (2003). De léducation à la carrière à léducation à lhumanité : quelles perspectives pour les approches éducatives au 21ièmes siècle ? Carriérologie, 9 (1) 2-12 Riverin-Simard, D. (2003). Le sens du travail et la carriérologie. Carriérologie, revue francophone internationale. 4/03_riverin/03_riverin.html Additional Qualifications – Summer Evolution of the Concept of Work

7 1.2 Workplace and Globalization Additional Qualifications – Summer Evolution of the Concept of Work A) A few statistics It is mainly the big businesses, in the private sector, that are the most affected (500+ employees) These large enterprises laid more people off in 1999 than in 1989 The probability of permanent lay offs in large private enterprises grew 0.7 points for men and 0.6 points for women This is an important growth, since it accounts for approximately 20%, in relative terms In 1999, large enterprises made up for one third of the jobs in the private sector Statistic Canada (2004) 18.pdf B) The IBM example At the beginning of the 1960s, IBM offered job security for life, as long ad the employee stayed loyal to society Today, contracts are extended for as long as both parties recover a profit In 1985, people worked for IBM. Today the number is much lower Large enterprises like IBM tend to: Determine salary based on performance Grant less importance to seniority Avoid multiplying positions over time Do not require long-term employment from their employees Reduce marginal benefits Outlook on the workplace; How Is the Game Played Now? By Steve Lohr (NYT, déc., 2005).

8 1.2 Workplace and Globalization Additional Qualifications – Summer Evolution of the Concept of Work C) Consequences Employees must expect to experience several transitions throughout their long careers Enterprises are looking for a mobile, autonomous and well educated workforce Companies are hiring on a temporary basis to meet a particular need. Hence the occasional, contract and part-time status Employees must be ready to pursue lifelong learning in order to maintain their level of employability D) Work Motivators A corporate project could inspire employees Retribution based on productivity Chance to develop new competencies Autonomy at work The creation of learning communities

9 Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009 Workplace of years before Stability, predictability Permanence Standards work patterns Valuing loyalty Linear growth Onetime learning Realities of Todays Workplaces Todays realities in the workplace Change, uncertainty Temporariness Flexible work Valuing performance and skills Multiple careers Lifelong learning

10 2.1 Increase in the Number of Jobs Additional Qualifications – Summer The Canadian Workforce Employment The workplace is in constant mutation. Since 1976, thousands of jobs have been created while others have disappeared According to Statistics Canada, the number of jobs in Canada was less than 10 million in 1976 and more than 16 million in 2003 In fact, since 1976, Canada has suffered two periods where job loss was constant: the and recessions. The 1980 recession was major, but the one in 1990 produced effects that persisted for several years after. It is only in 1994 that Canada was able to stabilise from the 1990 effect Since 1992, jobs have increased by 2% Compared to other industrialized countries, Canada performs well in terms of the employment rate From 1996 to 2004, Canada recorded a growth rate of 20%. This is the highest rate ever reported. Almost all industrialized countries have seen this type of employment growth, except for Japan.

11 2.2 Lower Unemployment Rate Additional Qualifications – Summer The Canadian Workforce Unemployment Rates With a rise in the employment there has been a decrease in the unemployment rate In 1976, the unemployment rate was situated at 6.7%. During the recession of 1980, it climbed to 12% and with the recession of 1990, it reached 11.4% in 1993 Since 1994, the unemployment rate is constantly going down. In November 2005, it fell to 6.4%, which broke the record of eng.htmhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/ x/ / eng.htm eng.htmhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/ x/ / eng.htm

12 2.2 Lower Unemployment Rate Additional Qualifications – Summer The Canadian Workforce Unemployment Rates by Age According to Statistics Canada, the unemployment rate is usually associated to age For example, in adults aged 25 to 54 years, the unemployment rate was 5.8%, the lowest in 30 years The unemployment rate for people 55 and over was at 5.1% in 2005 However, for youth ages 15 to 24, it was at 12.4% in Within this group, the unemployment rate is 16.5% for individuals years of age and 9.7% in the age group. However, because of the aging population, the youth only made up 33% of the unemployed population in 2005, compared to 50% in big_f.htmhttp://www.statcan.ca/francais/freepub/ XIF/ /chart-b9- big_f.htm

13 2.3 Participation Rates Additional Qualifications – Summer The Canadian Workforce Participation Rates The participation rate measures the total labour force (comprised of those who are employed and unemployed, combined) relative to the size of the working-age population In 2005, 17.3 million people were in the labour market, a participation rate of 67.2% This rate saw an increase from 1976 to 1989, peaking at 67.3%. However, it fell from 1990 to 1997 The next few years will see a decrease in participation rates since the baby-boom generation will be retiring eng.htmhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/ x/ / eng.htm

14 2.3 Participation Rates Additional Qualifications – Summer The Canadian Workforce Distribution of Population In fact, the working-age population is divided into three mutually exclusive groups: employed, unemployed and those not in the labour force. People in the first two groups are considered active in the labour market In 2005, the not in the labour force' group mainly included people aged 65 and over (44.2%) The not in the labour force' group has declined steadily as a proportion of the working-age population, dropping from about 38.5% in 1976 to 32.8% in This trend is likely to reverse itself in the future, owing to an aging population and an anticipated surge in the number of retirees. eng.htmhttp://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/ x/ / eng.htm

15 2.4 Transformation of the Workforce Additional Qualifications – Summer The Canadian Workforce Changes in Employment This evolution of the workplace has caused a certain decline in some economic sectors. There are less and less workers in certain fields such as agriculture. In fact, compared to 1987, agriculture is the only area that has seen a steady decline in activity. Natural resources have also reported declines. The mining industry has reported a lower employment rate compared to other sectors. There have been reported losses in the forest industry, however there have been gains in the oil and gas industry. Employment has more than doubled in the sectors related to services (placement agencies, telephone call centres and office administrative services). Another sector that is in great demand is computers systems. Employment in construction has steadily increased since 1996

16 2.4 Transformation of the Workforce Additional Qualifications – Summer The Canadian Workforce Employment Indexes Job permanencywhether or not a job has a predetermined end date can be used alongside other indicators as a measure of job quality. A permanent job generally tends to be more stable and has higher wages than a temporary job. For example, in 2005, the average hourly wage of permanent employees was $19.73, compared with $14.91 for temporary employees. In 2005, the vast majority of Canadian employees (86.8%) had permanent jobswith no predetermined end date. Temporary jobs increased at a faster pace than permanent ones from 1997 to 2005 (40.0% versus 23.2%), but in terms of sheer numbers, there were far more permanent jobs added (1.8 million) than temporary ones (513,000). Nevertheless, the share of all employees in temporary jobs has increased to 13.2% in 2005 from 11.3% in

17 2.5 Demographic Pressures Additional Qualifications – Summer The Canadian Workforce Retirement Age From 1976 to 1986, the proportion of workers nearing retirementthose who were within 10 years of the median retirement age or were older than the median retirement agewent from 11.7% to 10.3%. During that period, the median age at retirement hovered around 65. Subsequently, however, the retirement age fell from 64.6% in 1986 to 60.6% in From 1997 to 2005, the proportion of workers nearing retirement was on an upward trend to 22.1%. In 2005, there were 3.6 million workers nearing retirement. ge/cda01pymd.cfmhttp://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/products/analytic/companion/a ge/cda01pymd.cfm

18 2.6 Conditions of Success In this ever-changing context, Meister (1994) identified essential abilities that employees must demonstrate. These abilities are: Additional Qualifications – Summer The Canadian Workforce Ability to learn from various sources. The individual has to want to continue learning Learning Abilities Ability to apply acquired information Reading, Writing, Organisation and Thinking Abilities Ability to work in a group, resolve conflicts, cooperate and establish a network Interpersonal Abilities Ability to analyse a situation, ask questions, clarify and be creative. Autonomy in the execution of responsibilities without constantly consulting with the management team Creativity and Problem Solving Abilities Ability to bring about change in the workplace. The individual can no longer be content to only carry out the tasks that they are assigned Leadership Abilities Ability to take charge of their own career development. Cultivate an attitude that promotes initiative and openness Self-Development Abilities

19 2.7 21st Century Work Ethic According to Savickas (1993) career counselling will no longer simply aim to promote career development Career counsellors will have to encourage the development of self-affirmation, the exploration of career values and decision making skills In other words, self-development will become more import than career development The role of work will lose its importance compared to other functions. Todays workplace is considered less of a place to invest yourself and more of a place to invest in yourself. Savickas, M.L.(1993). Career Counseling in the Postmodern Era. Journal of Cogntive Psychotherrapy: An international Quarterly,(7) 3, Additional Qualifications – Summer The Canadian Workforce

20 2.7 21st Century Work Ethic Additional Qualifications – Summer The Canadian Workforce Work FamilyLeisure Health Social Life

21 Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009 … career counselling must promote the individuals development and decision making skills based on a labour force that is in constant mutation Saviskas, M.L. (1993). Career Counseling in the Postmodern Era. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quaternly7(3),


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