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Additional Qualifications

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Presentation on theme: "Additional Qualifications"— Presentation transcript:

1 Additional Qualifications
Faculty of Education Additional Qualifications Summer 2009 Module 03 André Samson Ph.D., c.o.

2 Overview of the Presentation
1. Evolution of the Concept of Work 1.1 Emergence of a Global Economy 1.2 Workplace and Globalization 2. The Canadian Workforce 2.1 Increase in the Number of Jobs 2.2 Lower Unemployment Rate 2.3 Participation Rates 2.4 Transformation of the Workforce 2.5 Demographic Pressures 2.6 Conditions of Success 2.7 21st Century Work Ethic Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

3 Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009
“Career counselling is not intended to help the individual make immediate decisions, rather it provides each individual with the tools to make permanent career choices and decisions”. OCDE, (2003). Orientation professionnelle: nouvelles pistes de réflexion. Une analyse des politiques d’éducation. Paris Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

4 1. Evolution of the Concept of Work
1.1 Emergence of a Global Economy The collapse of the tariff barriers to trade and the emergence of international economies have contributed to a global economy Both public and private organisations are forced to develop and operate in a growing competitive context This global competition has forced organisations to continually adapt and reinvent themselves Furthermore, technological advances are also playing an important role in this global economy OCDE, (2003). Orientation professionnelle: nouvelles pistes de réflexion. Une analyse des politiques d’éducation. Paris Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

5 1. Evolution of the Concept of Work
Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

6 1. Evolution of the Concept of Work
1.2 Workplace and Globalization Today, we see a divide in the workforce between smaller jobs and ones that are well remunerated – Moving from one sector to another is becoming more and more difficult There is a higher unemployment rate among people who are less qualified Knowledge and specialized training now give access to upper levels of the workforce There is not one career path to follow anymore Guichard, J. (2003). De l’éducation à la carrière à l’éducation à l’humanité : quelles perspectives pour les approches éducatives au 21ièmes siècle ? Carriérologie, 9 (1) 2-12 Riverin-Simard, D. (2003). Le sens du travail et la carriérologie. Carriérologie, revue francophone internationale. Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

7 1. Evolution of the Concept of Work
1.2 Workplace and Globalization A) A few statistics It is mainly the big businesses, in the private sector, that are the most affected (500+ employees) These large enterprises laid more people off in 1999 than in 1989 The probability of permanent lay offs in large private enterprises grew 0.7 points for men and 0.6 points for women This is an important growth, since it accounts for approximately 20%, in relative terms In 1999, large enterprises made up for one third of the jobs in the private sector Statistic Canada (2004) B) The IBM example At the beginning of the 1960’s, IBM offered job security for life, as long ad the employee stayed loyal to society Today, contracts are extended for as long as both parties recover a profit In 1985, people worked for IBM. Today the number is much lower Large enterprises like IBM tend to: Determine salary based on performance Grant less importance to seniority Avoid multiplying positions over time Do not require long-term employment from their employees Reduce marginal benefits Outlook on the workplace; How Is the Game Played Now? By Steve Lohr (NYT, déc., 2005). Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

8 1. Evolution of the Concept of Work
1.2 Workplace and Globalization C) Consequences Employees must expect to experience several transitions throughout their long careers Enterprises are looking for a mobile, autonomous and well educated workforce Companies are hiring on a temporary basis to meet a particular need. Hence the “occasional”, “contract” and “part-time” status’ Employees must be ready to pursue lifelong learning in order to maintain their level of employability D) Work Motivators A corporate project could inspire employees Retribution based on productivity Chance to develop new competencies Autonomy at work The creation of learning communities Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

9 Realities of Today’s Workplaces
of years before Stability, predictability Permanence Standards work patterns Valuing loyalty Linear growth Onetime learning Today’s realities in the workplace Change, uncertainty Temporariness Flexible work Valuing performance and skills Multiple careers Lifelong learning Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

10 2. The Canadian Workforce Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009
2.1 Increase in the Number of Jobs Employment  The workplace is in constant mutation. Since 1976, thousands of jobs have been created while others have disappeared  According to Statistics Canada, the number of jobs in Canada was less than 10 million in 1976 and more than 16 million in 2003  In fact, since 1976, Canada has suffered two periods where job loss was constant: the and recessions. The 1980 recession was major, but the one in 1990 produced effects that persisted for several years after. It is only in 1994 that Canada was able to stabilise from the 1990 effect  Since 1992, jobs have increased by 2%  Compared to other industrialized countries, Canada performs well in terms of the employment rate  From 1996 to 2004, Canada recorded a growth rate of 20%. This is the highest rate ever reported.  Almost all industrialized countries have seen this type of employment growth, except for Japan. Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

11 2. The Canadian Workforce Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009
2.2 Lower Unemployment Rate Unemployment Rates  With a rise in the employment there has been a decrease in the unemployment rate  In 1976, the unemployment rate was situated at 6.7%. During the recession of 1980, it climbed to 12% and with the recession of 1990, it reached 11.4% in 1993  Since 1994, the unemployment rate is constantly going down. In November 2005, it fell to 6.4%, which broke the record of 1976 Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

12 2. The Canadian Workforce Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009
2.2 Lower Unemployment Rate Unemployment Rates by Age  According to Statistics Canada, the unemployment rate is usually associated to age  For example, in adults aged 25 to 54 years, the unemployment rate was 5.8%, the lowest in 30 years  The unemployment rate for people 55 and over was at 5.1% in 2005  However, for youth ages 15 to 24, it was at 12.4% in Within this group, the unemployment rate is 16.5% for individuals years of age and 9.7% in the age group.  However, because of the aging population, the youth only made up 33% of the unemployed population in 2005, compared to 50% in 1976 Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

13 2. The Canadian Workforce Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009
2.3 Participation Rates Participation Rates  The participation rate measures the total labour force (comprised of those who are employed and unemployed, combined) relative to the size of the working-age population  In 2005, 17.3 million people were in the labour market, a participation rate of 67.2%  This rate saw an increase from 1976 to 1989, peaking at 67.3%. However, it fell from 1990 to 1997  The next few years will see a decrease in participation rates since the baby-boom generation will be retiring Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

14 2. The Canadian Workforce Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009
2.3 Participation Rates Distribution of Population  In fact, the working-age population is divided into three mutually exclusive groups: employed, unemployed and those not in the labour force. People in the first two groups are considered ‘active in the labour market’  In 2005, the ‘not in the labour force' group mainly included people aged 65 and over (44.2%)  The ‘not in the labour force' group has declined steadily as a proportion of the working-age population, dropping from about 38.5% in 1976 to 32.8% in This trend is likely to reverse itself in the future, owing to an aging population and an anticipated surge in the number of retirees. Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

15 2. The Canadian Workforce Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009
2.4 Transformation of the Workforce Changes in Employment  This evolution of the workplace has caused a certain decline in some economic sectors. There are less and less workers in certain fields such as agriculture. In fact, compared to 1987, agriculture is the only area that has seen a steady decline in activity.  Natural resources have also reported declines. The mining industry has reported a lower employment rate compared to other sectors. There have been reported losses in the forest industry, however there have been gains in the oil and gas industry.  Employment has more than doubled in the sectors related to services (placement agencies, telephone call centres and office administrative services). Another sector that is in great demand is computers systems.  Employment in construction has steadily increased since 1996 Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

16 2. The Canadian Workforce Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009
2.4 Transformation of the Workforce Employment Indexes  Job permanency—whether or not a job has a predetermined end date—can be used alongside other indicators as a measure of job quality. A permanent job generally tends to be more stable and has higher wages than a temporary job. For example, in 2005, the average hourly wage of permanent employees was $19.73, compared with $14.91 for temporary employees.  In 2005, the vast majority of Canadian employees (86.8%) had permanent jobs—with no predetermined end date.  Temporary jobs increased at a faster pace than permanent ones from 1997 to 2005 (40.0% versus 23.2%), but in terms of sheer numbers, there were far more permanent jobs added (1.8 million) than temporary ones (513,000).  Nevertheless, the share of all employees in temporary jobs has increased to 13.2% in 2005 from 11.3% in 1997. Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

17 2. The Canadian Workforce Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009
2.5 Demographic Pressures Retirement Age  From 1976 to 1986, the proportion of workers nearing retirement—those who were within 10 years of the median retirement age or were older than the median retirement age—went from 11.7% to 10.3%.  During that period, the median age at retirement hovered around 65. Subsequently, however, the retirement age fell from 64.6% in 1986 to 60.6% in 1997.  From 1997 to 2005, the proportion of workers nearing retirement was on an upward trend to 22.1%. In 2005, there were 3.6 million workers nearing retirement. Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

18 2. The Canadian Workforce
2.6 Conditions of Success In this ever-changing context, Meister (1994) identified essential abilities that employees must demonstrate. These abilities are: Learning Abilities Ability to learn from various sources. The individual has to want to continue learning Reading, Writing, Organisation and Thinking Abilities Ability to apply acquired information Interpersonal Abilities Ability to work in a group, resolve conflicts, cooperate and establish a network Creativity and Problem Solving Abilities Ability to analyse a situation, ask questions, clarify and be creative. Autonomy in the execution of responsibilities without constantly consulting with the management team Leadership Abilities Ability to bring about change in the workplace. The individual can no longer be content to only carry out the tasks that they are assigned Self-Development Abilities Ability to take charge of their own career development. Cultivate an attitude that promotes initiative and openness Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

19 2. The Canadian Workforce Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009
2.7 21st Century Work Ethic According to Savickas (1993) career counselling will no longer simply aim to promote career development Career counsellors will have to encourage the development of self-affirmation, the exploration of career values and decision making skills In other words, self-development will become more import than career development The role of work will lose its importance compared to other functions. Today’s workplace is considered less of a place to invest yourself and more of a place to invest in yourself. Savickas, M.L.(1993). Career Counseling in the Postmodern Era. Journal of Cogntive Psychotherrapy: An international Quarterly,(7) 3, Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

20 2. The Canadian Workforce Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009
2.7 21st Century Work Ethic Family Leisure Health Social Life Work Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009

21 Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009
“… career counselling must promote the individual’s development and decision making skills based on a labour force that is in constant mutation” Saviskas, M.L. (1993). Career Counseling in the Postmodern Era. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quaternly7(3), Additional Qualifications – Summer 2009


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