Presentation on theme: "Classroom Assessment A Practical Guide for Educators by Craig A. Mertler Chapter 12 Assessing Group Work."— Presentation transcript:
Classroom Assessment A Practical Guide for Educators by Craig A. Mertler Chapter 12 Assessing Group Work
Introduction Assessing group work is not as straightforward as it may seem; it is not a simple extension of individual student assessment. There are several additional assessment issues related to the assessment of group work.
The Importance of Group Process More and more classrooms are emphasizing cooperative learning strategies, involving small groups of two to six students who must work on a task together. Can foster student learning, self-esteem, social skills, and attitudes toward others. Not only an important instructional strategy, but also an important assessment strategy. To create a better parallel between instruction and assessment.
The Importance of Group Process Three basic purposes of assessment in cooperative learning environments: to measure each individual student’s level of learning resulting from the group work to measure the quality of the group’s solution to measure students’ abilities to collaborate with others Main idea is that students often learn more (or differently) when working with others, rather than in isolation.
The Importance of Group Process Several types of group processes can emerge when students are placed in collaborative situations: Working together. Conflict and controversy. Giving and receiving help. Equality of participation. Diffusion of responsibility. Division of labor. Expert model Interchangeable model
Designing Assessments of Group Process Group process can have both positive and negative effects on individual and group learning. Three types of group work that focus on mastery of subject matter (and include collaborative processes) are: Group papers Group projects Group presentations
Designing Assessments of Group Process However, students’ collaborative (group) skills can also be assessed as a result of these types of work. Assessing Collaborative Work Skills: Step-by-Step Procedure Step 1: Clarify your reasons for wanting to assess group skills. Step 2: Describe the assessment context. Step 3: Identify and describe each collaborative skill. Step 4: Design an appropriate scoring instrument.
Methods for Assessing Group Process Most common practice is to assign a single grade to the group’s solution and give that grade to each member. Assumes equal participation and contribution to the solution (typically not the case). If teacher stresses that individual contributions are more important than that of the group, many benefits of group process will be lost. Tends to create very competitive—not collaborative—environment.
Methods for Assessing Group Process No single solution to this dilemma. Depends on purpose of group work, teacher’s views of assessment, etc. Often results in the incorporation of subjective decisions. Many teachers are content to award the same grade to everyone; some rely on additional observations made by others; some incorporate self- and peer-assessment.
Methods for Assessing Group Process Three specific methods for assessing group work: Self-assessment Appropriate in upper-elementary and secondary grades. Can be used to assess level of effort, amount of time contributed, portions of process with which students felt comfortable, and those that were difficult. Tendency to self-assess in a less-than-honest manner. Good practice to examine alongside other evidence.
Methods for Assessing Group Process Self-assessment (continued) Can also incorporate informal discussion with individual students, comparing various assessments.
Methods for Assessing Group Process Peer assessment Each team member assesses all other members. In theory, a very effective approach since they know best what happened within the group. May also have problems with honesty. Should be used only as formative feedback to teachers; not as basis for grades.
Methods for Assessing Group Process Teacher assessment Entire responsibility can be placed on the teacher. This involves assigning both individual and group grades—each student receives two grades. Assigns a grade for the quality of the group- based product or solution; each student receives this grade for the group’s work. Students are then required to complete individual follow-up activities related to the group’s solution or product; purpose is to determine individual understanding (therefore, students have responsibility for group and individual learning).