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Author: Lototska Olena V. Author: Lototska Olena V. 1 Introduction to hygiene and ecology. Hygienic important components of the biosphere, solar radiation,

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Presentation on theme: "Author: Lototska Olena V. Author: Lototska Olena V. 1 Introduction to hygiene and ecology. Hygienic important components of the biosphere, solar radiation,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Author: Lototska Olena V. Author: Lototska Olena V. 1 Introduction to hygiene and ecology. Hygienic important components of the biosphere, solar radiation, climate and weather. Bioethical aspects of the impact of the environment on humans.

2 THE PLAN 1.Introduction in hygiene and ecology. 2.Bases of preventive and current sanitary supervision. 3.Hygienic important components of the biosphere, solar radiation,climate and weather. 4.Sun radiation and health. 5.Hygienic important of climate and weather. 6.Bioethical aspects of the impact of the environment on humans.

3 Introduction

4   Prophylaxis is one of the basic principles of public health service. The main duty of the medical workers is the taking of the disease prevention measures for healthy people and exacerbation, complication and relapse prevention for the ill.   Prophylaxis means the wide system of state, public and medical measures for preserving and strengthening people’s health, the upbringing of the healthy young generation, work capacity and people’s longevity increasing.

5 Prophylaxis is divided into three kinds – primary, secondary and tertiary in accordance to the specific kinds of pathology. Primary prophylaxis includes prophylactic technologies of preventing disease through removing risk factors (causes and conditions of its development) and improving general body resistance to risk factors. Secondary prophylaxis includes medico- prophylactic technologies of revealing a disease, preventing its progress, aggravation and possible complications Tertiary prophylaxis includes medico- prophylactic technologies aimed at removing negative aftermaths of the disease (relapses, complications, temporary and permanent disability, death).

6 THE IDEAS OF PROPHYLAXIS IN SCIENTIFIC WORKS The main task of a doctor is about care of healthy people so that they don’t fall in disease. Hippocrates (IV century B.C.) Hippocrates (IV century B.C.) The primary task of a doctor lies in preventing a disease; if you have failed to manage it – treat it; if the disease is incurable – alleviate suffering. Botkin S.P. (1867) I believe in hygiene. This is where real progress of our science lies. The future belongs to preventive medicine. Pirogov M.P. (1887)

7 Health is defined as a state of complete physical, mental and social well- being and not merely absence of disease or infirmity.

8 health of the population genetic factor (18-22 %), pollution of an environment (17-20 %) medical etiological factors (8 -10 %) way of life (49-53 %)

9 PROPHYLACTIC MEDICINE Object of studying: healthy man, and groups of the practically healthy people MEDICAL Object of studying: sick man sick man MedicineMedicine

10 To promote and maintain a state of health an individual needs the following prerequisites:   Supply of fresh air and sunlight   Safe and potable water supply   Balanced diet   Healthful shelter   Adequate clothing hygienic environmental sanitation   Protection from communicable and other avoidable afflictions  Complete sense of protection and security both socially and economically  A congenial social and cultural atmosphere.  Regulated way of life with proper rest and relaxation and good and simple habits.

11 Hygiene is a basic preventive science in medicine. It generalizes all dates of theoretical and clinical disciplines in the field of prophylaxis, integrates knowledge’s about complex influence of an environment for health of the man, work out principles and systems of preventive measures.

12  The word hygiene comes from Hygeia, the Greek goddess of health, who was the daughter of Aesculapius, the god of medicine. In Greek and Roman mythology, Hygieia (also Hygiea or Hygeia, Greek Ὑ γιεία or Ὑ γεία, Latin Hygēa or Hygīa), was a daughter of the god of medicine, Asclepius. She was the goddess of health, cleanliness and sanitation. She also played an important part in her father's cult. While her father was more directly associated with healing, she was associated with the prevention of sickness and the continuation of good health. Her name is the source of the word "hygiene".

13 Marble relief of Asclepius and his daughter Hygeia. From Therme, Greece, end of the 5th century BC.

14 Basic aim of hygiene – preserving and improving health Professor Winslow defined aim of hygiene as "science and art of (i) preventing diseases, (ii) prolonging life, and (iii) promoting health and efficiency through organized community effort for (a) the sanitation of the environment, (b) the control of communicable diseases, (c) the education of the individual or personal hygiene, (d) the organization of medical and nursing services for the early diagnosis and preventive treatment of disease, and (e) the development of the social machinery to ensure everyone a standard of living adequate for the maintenance of health, so organizing these benefits as to enable every citizen to realize birth right of health and longevity".

15 It has many aspects:  personal hygiene (proper living habits, cleanliness of body and clothing, healthful diet, a balanced regimen of rest and exercise);  domestic hygiene (sanitary preparation of food, cleanliness, and ventilation of the home);  public hygiene (supervision of water and food supply, containment of communicable disease, disposal of garbage and sewage, control of air and water pollution);  industrial hygiene (measures that minimize occupational disease and accident);  mental hygiene (recognition of mental and emotional factors in healthful living) and so on.

16 Main tasks of hygiene are the following: 4. Introduction in practice of public health services and national economy developed hygienic recommendations, rules and norms, check of their effectiveness and perfecting. 5. Prediction of the sanitarian situation for the nearest and remote perspective in view plans of development of the national economy. Definition of appropriate hygienic problems, which implying from prognostic situation and scientific working out these problems. 2. Studying the laws of the impact of environmental factors and conditions on the human body or population. 3. Scientific substantiation and working out of the hygienic norms, rules and measures, which help use maximum positively influencing on an organism of the man the factors of an environment and elimination or restriction up to safe levels unfavourable operating ones. 1. Studying the natural and anthropogenic environmental factors and social conditions affecting the health of a human.

17 Basic methods of hygienic researches

18 2. Methods of studying of environmental influence on human organism and health 1. Methods of environment studying Methods of hygiene

19 Methods of sanitary examination with further sanitary description Methods of environment studying Methods of environment studying Instrumental and laboratory methods Geographical Physical Sanitary-statistic chemical Biological

20 Methods of experimental investigation Methods of Studying of Environmental Influence on Human Organism and Health 1.Experiment with models of natural condition Methods of natural observation 1.Clinical 2.Laboratory experiment on animals 3.Laboratory experiment on humans 2. Physiological 3. Biochemical 5. Sanitary-statistic 4. Toxicological 6. Medical- geographical

21 “Prevention is better than cure” is an old saying. Preventive medicine deals with the measures to protect the individuals from the diseases, and to keep them in a state of positive health. For this we have to ensure all the above-mentioned prerequisites required for the maintenance of positive health.

22 People in ancient societies were concerned about personal hygiene and sanitation for religious reasons. The Bible contains many rules for cleanliness, and describes public health measures still important today. These include quarantining the sick to prevent the spread of disease and avoiding contact with objects used by sick people. The Greek physician Hippocrates first made the connection between disease and natural environmental factors in the 4th century bc. His treatise Airs, Waters, and Places described how diseases can result from way of life, climate, impure water, and other environmental factors. For the next 2000 years, it was the most widely used text on public health and epidemiology.

23 Ancient Romans adopted Greek ideas about public health after colonizing Greece in the 1st century bc. Rome's greatest contributions to public health involved sanitary engineering. They built aqueducts to supply Rome with pure water and a public sewer system to carry away wastes, as well as public baths and hospitals. The Roman government also hired physicians and assigned them to villages to care for the poor.

24 After the Roman Empire collapsed in ad 476 public health efforts were forgotten and unsanitary conditions returned. Millions of people died when great epidemics of smallpox, leprosy, bubonic plague, tuberculosis, and other diseases swept across Europe in the Middle Ages (5th to 15th centuries ad). Illustration of the Black Death from the Toggenburg Bible (1411)Toggenburg European painting showing the Plague.

25 Anthoni van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) was the first to observe bacteria and other microscopic organisms using a rudimentary microscope. In 1700 Bernardino Ramazzini (1633-1714)published first comprehensive occupational health treatise. This the birth of occupational health.

26 During the Renaissance (1500- 1700 A.D.), there was rebirth of thinking about nature and humans. Scientific advances of the 16th and 17th centuries laid the foundations of anatomy and physiology. Observation and classification made possible the more precise recognition of diseases. The idea that microscopic organisms might cause communicable diseases had begun to take shape.

27 The environments must be hygienic, with supply of fresh air, safe potable water and balanced diet. This aspect of preventive medicine started gaining more importance from 18th century onwards with the discovery of various vaccines and sera for the protection against various diseases like small pox, cholera, plague, whooping cough, tetanus, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis etc. Edward Jenner discovered vaccination against small pox in 1796.

28 The discovery of causative agents of the diseases by Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) and Robert Koch (1843-1910) gave a great fillip to the science of preventive medicine. Robert Koch Louis Pasteur Von Behring (1854-1917) brought up the principle of serum treatment and use of anti-sera in various diseases. Emil Adolf Behring



31 WHAT REQUIRES THE KNOWLEDGE OF HYGIENE  State of population health analysis connected with living conditions.  State of population health analysis connected with living conditions.  Diagnostics, defining etiology and pathogenesis of alimentary, professional and infectious diseases.  Administering treatment (in treatment-and-prophylactic institutions) and treatment-and-prophylactic (in dangerous enterprises) diet that assist in removing harmful substances from the body, rises the body resistance to their action.  Professional orientation (establishing correction of health level and chosen profession), medical expert examination.  Recommendations on daily regimen and personal hygiene.  Intrahospital infection prevention.  Conducting sanitary-educational work with people (in treatment-and-prophylactic establishments), in pediatric establishments (pediatric doctor), enterprises (medical dispensary doctor), in rural conditions (rural district doctor).


33 Environmental Sanitation means the control of all those factors in man's surroundings, which cause or may cause adverse effects on his health. The sanitarian directs his efforts towards hygiene of water and food supply, hygienic disposal of human wastes, hygiene of housing and control of vectors and rodents etc. Environmental Sanitation The word sanitation is derived from the Latin word Sanitas which means a state of health.


35 Hygienic standardization

36 Environmental standards are definite ranges of environmental factors which are optimal or the least dangerous for human life and health. In Ukraine basic objects of hygienic standardization are: MAC – maximum admissible concentration (for chemical admixtures, dust and other hazards) MAL – maximum admissible level (for physical factors) LD – dose limit (for ionizing radiation) Optimum and admissible parameters of microclimate, lighting, solar radiation, atmospheric pressure and other natural environmental factors. Optimum and admissible daily requirements in food and water.

37 The first group contains factors of anthropogenous origin which are unfavorable for human being, and are not necessary for the normal life activity (dust, noise, vibration, ionizing radiation, etc.). MAC, MAL and LD are those parameters which are set for this group of factors. The second group contains factors of natural surrounding which are necessary (in certain amount) for normal life activity (food-stuffs, solar radiation, microclimatic factors and others). For this group the following parameters, must be set: optimum, minimum and maximum admissible parameters. Basic objects which are under the hygienic norms setting can be divided into two groups.

38 What is pollution? The word comes from the Latin pollutus, which means made foul, unclean, or dirty. Some is obvious like smoke which you can see but much of it is not obvious at all. Yet you're eating it and drinking it and breathing it most of the time. And what is worse is that all this muck affects all other life on Earth.

39 Socio-economic conditions Labor Way of life Education of children Nutriti on Factors Здоров’ я людини Che mic al Psyc hoge nic Phy sical Biolo gical Factor is the reason, the driving force of any process Pollution - the presence in the environment of contaminating substances in quantities that exceed the MCL and can have a negative impact on the health and living conditions of human Pollutant – is any natural or anthropogenic physical agent, chemical substance or biological species that gets into the environment, whether it appears in quantities exceeding normal (allowable) content

40 polluting substance AIR MAN water Plants MAN Animals MAN SOIL The following ways of toxic, radioactive and biological agents transmission are possible polluting substance

41 Types of actions of environmental factors on the human body  Isolated is an action, in which one substance gets into the human body  Combined is an action, in which several substances get into the human body from a single medium  Complex – is an action, in which a substance gets into the human body from different compartments of biosphere  Incorporated is an action, in which the human body is affected by two or more factors of different nature (e.g. chemical and noise simultaneously)

42 Traditional forms of pollution include air pollution, water pollution, and radioactive contamination while a broader interpretation of the word has led to the ideas of ship pollution, light pollution, and noise pollution. air pollution water pollutionradioactive contaminationship pollution light pollutionnoise pollutionair pollution water pollutionradioactive contaminationship pollution light pollutionnoise pollution Water pollution Air pollution Land pollution Light pollution

43 What are the three components of the biosphere & what role do they play in maintaining life ?   Biosphere is area of the earth inhabited by life. It contains all the earth's ecosystems. This is a thin layer of oceans, lakes, and streams. The land to the depth of a few meters and the atmosphere to an altitude of a few kilometers. 1. Water (oceans, lakes, rivers, streams). All life is water based. Organisms use it to live in and use it to keep hydrated on land. It keeps the earth's temperature from getting too hot or too cold. 2. Land is the solid foundation for plants, fungi, animals to interact with each other. 3. Atmosphere is used to hold the oxygen needed for aerobic life to exist. It is the main mover of our weather and controls the climates around the world.

44 2.4. “Biosphere“ (from greek. Bios - life and sphaira - shell) - first used in 1875 by Austrian scientist E. Zyus during the study of alpine forests World famous geochemist, Academician V.I. Vernadsky (1926) identified three components of the biosphere (living - biota and inanimate - biokost): lower atmosphere (troposphere), - at an altitude of 7-8 km over the poles and 16-18 km - above the equator of the planet Earth, hydrosphere – with the parameters of depth of 11022 m, as well as part of the lithosphere - up to 2-3 km deep to subsoil V.I. Vernadsky 1863-1945

45  An atmosphere (New Latin atmosphaera, created in the 17th century from Greek ἀ τμός [atmos] and σφα ῖ ρα [sphaira] “sphere” is a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass and that is held in place by the gravity of the body. ἀ τμός σφα ῖ ρα ἀ τμός σφα ῖ ρα  The mass of Earth is 5,98 x 10 21 tons  The mass of Atmosphere is 5,157 x 10 15 tons The atmosphere as part of the biosphere

46   The atmosphere of Earth is a layer of gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity.gases surrounding the planet Earth that is retained by Earth's gravity.   The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation) The atmosphere protects life on Earth by absorbing ultraviolet solar radiation, warming the surface through heat retention (greenhouse effect), and reducing temperature extremes between day and night (the diurnal temperature variation)   Atmospheric stratification describes the structure of the atmosphere, dividing it into distinct layers, each with specific characteristics such as temperature or composition. Atmospheric stratification describes the structure of the atmosphere, dividing it into distinct layers, each with specific characteristics such as temperature or composition. The atmosphere as part of the biosphere

47  Exosphere ( 690-10000 km)  Thermosphere (85-690 km)  Mesosphere (50-85 km)  Stratosphere (20-50 km)  Troposphere (0 – 20 km) The structure of the atmosphere


49 Aproximate composition of air

50 Effects of air pollutionHumanHealth From slight to severe intoxication. Problems with the organs of vision, respiratory (bronchitis, asthma, pneumoconiosis, etc.); nervous system Biosphere Contamination of soil; direct poisoning of green mass of plants and through intoxication of soil; contamination of the hydrosphere Buildings, structures, machinery Corrosion of metal structures and materials; destruction of rubber, plastics, dyes, electrochemical coatings, reduced reliability of machines and mechanisms

51 Сlimate Change: - increase or decrease in temperature, humidity; - changes in physical and chemical characteristics of air; - increased concentrations of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides, chlorofluorocarbons, methane, ozone, krypton, aerosols; - changes in state and properties of the upper layers of Atmosphere under the influence of CFCs and nitrogen oxides, detection of aerosols in the stratosphere; - changes in reflectivity properties (albedo) of the Earth; - Ozone depletion (freons, nitrogen oxides, chlorine): annual ↓ ~ 0,1%, to year 2050 - ↓ 5-8%, and by year 2100 ↓ 11-16 Effects of air pollution

52 Mechanism : When light falls on any surface which is transparent, some rays are reflected and some are refracted. A process of partial retention of light takes place in the green house, so temperature in the glass house is increased. Green houses are glass huts seen in hilly areas and in the agricultural processing areas.

53 Hazards of Green House Effects:   Global warming   Increased evaporation from sea.   Melting of Ice at poles of earth.   Increase in sea level.   Floods.   Disturbance at coastal areas due to increased sea level. Prevention:   Decreased industrialization   Treatment of Industrial smoke   Check unfit automobiles.

54 Damage to the ozone layer is primarily caused by the use of chloroflurocarbons (CFCs). Ozone is a form of oxygen found in the earth's upper atmosphere. The thin layer of ozone molecules in the atmosphere absorb some of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) rays before it reaches the earth's surface, making life on earth possible. The depletion of ozone is causing higher levels of UV radiation on earth, endangering both plants and animals.

55 Sun radiation and health

56 The Sun… …is necessary for life on Earth. It helps plants to grow, and provides warmth and light. Sunlight also helps people to be happy and healthy.

57 The Sun… …produces light and warmth but also Ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV radiation cannot be seen or felt. It is UV radiation, not the warmth or brightness of the sun that causes changes to skin color, damage to eyes, and other bad health effects.

58 The sun is a source of electromagnetic energy including radio waves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays, and cosmic rays. Each band has its own characteristic wavelengths and properties as a result of wavelength. Visible light is "visible" because its wavelengths can be detected as various colors by the human eye. Ultraviolet, although invisible, also has various wavelengths and properties.

59 . Category Wavelength (nanometres, nm) Relevance to life on earth Cosmic rays0.000001 Dangerous and potentially cancer-producing, but penetrate to Earth only in insignificant amounts Gamma rays0.0001 Dangerous and potentially cancer-producing, but penetrate to Earth only in insignificant amounts X-rays0.01 Dangerous and potentially cancer-producing, but penetrate to Earth only in insignificant amounts; also used artificially in medicine Ultraviolet (UV)100-400 Causes short- and long- radiation term damage to exposed living matter, particularly, in humans, sunburn, photoageing and cancer of the skin Visible light400-800 Allows us to see; enables plants to create food molecules; drives human biorhythms; lifts human mood Infrared radiation 800-17,000Warms our bodies Radiofrequency100,000,000 Harmless and of no known radiation significant effect; used artificially for tele- communications

60 The solar ultraviolet radiation wave length less then 290 nm is completely absorbed by oxygen and ozone of the upper atmosphere. Atmospheric pollution by factory waste helps the ozone layer destruction resulting in appearance of “ozone holes”. The shortest and the most harmful UV waves reach the earth surface through these “ozone holes”.

61 UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C are part of the ultraviolet spectrum and we are usually exposed to some of each every day. UV exposure can be harmful or harmless depending on the type of UV, the type of exposure, the exposure duration, and individual differences in response to UV.

62  Time of day  Time of year  Location  Altitude  Weather  Reflection  Ozone Layer UV radiation is not always the same it changes based on…

63 UV rays are necessary for our body to produce vitamin D, a substance that helps strengthen bones and safeguards against diseases such as Rickets. Some scientists have shown that Vitamin D lowers the risk of getting some kinds of internal cancer, like colon cancer. Positive effects

64 UV light is also used as a therapy for psoriasis, a condition in which the skin sheds its cells too quickly, resulting in itchy, scaly patches on various parts of the body. When exposed to ultraviolet rays, the growth of the skin cells is slowed, relieving the symptoms.

65 UV rays are also used in various commercial functions, such as disinfecting fish tanks and sterilizing medical equipment.

66 The difference has to do with the ability of UV rays to penetrate body surfaces.  UV-A is also known as "black light" and is generally harmless. It results in skin tanning and is used in medicine to treat certain skin disorders. Is ultraviolet light harmful?

67  UV-B has a very high penetrating ability and prolonged exposure is responsible for some types of skin cancer, skin aging, and cataracts (clouding of the lens of the eye).

68 Physical properties and chemical composition of atmospheric air and their hygienical value.

69 Temperature Temperature is a measure of the amount of heat (average molecular kinetic energy) in a material, such as air. Temperature is the average amount of “moving” energy contained by particles moving around in the atmosphere. Temperature is measured with thermometers that may be calibrated to a variety of temperature scales. The basic unit of temperature (symbol: T ) in the International System of Units (SI) is the kelvin (Symbol: K). In most of the world, the degree Celsius scale is used for most temperature measuring purposes.thermometerscalibratedtemperature scales International System of Units (SI)kelvindegree Celsius Many physical properties of materials including the phase, density, solubility, vapor pressure, and electrical conductivity depend on the temperature. Temperature also plays an important role in determining the rate and extent to which chemical reactions occur. This is one reason why the human body has several elaborate mechanisms for maintaining the temperature at 37 °C, since temperatures only a few degrees higher can result in harmful reactions with serious consequences. Temperature also controls the type and quantity of thermal radiation emitted from a surface.phasedensity solubilityvapor pressureelectrical conductivitychemical reactions

70 Air Pressure Air pressure is the force of air pushing down on earth. Air pressure due to weather is also known as Atmospheric Pressure. Air pressure is the result of Earth’s gravity pulling on the atmosphere. 1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 29.92 inches

71 A barometer is used to measure air pressure. The average pressure exerted by the atmosphere on sea level is 1 bar. The millibar (one- thousandth of a bar) is the unit commonly used to report air pressure.

72 Air pressure decreases with higher altitude. Pretend air pressure is like a column of air reaching into the sky. The higher up the land is, the shorter the column of air is on top of it. A shorter column has less mass and weighs less. As such, there is less air on top of mountains pushing down than there is down in a valley.

73 If the air is at 90% relative humidity, sweat will not evaporate into the air. As a result, we feel much hotter than the actual temperature when the relative humidity is high. If the relative humidity is low, we can feel much cooler than the actual temperature because our sweat evaporates easily, cooling the body. Relative Humidity We are very sensitive to humidity. Sweating keeps our body cool and maintain its current temperature.

74 How relative humidity (RH) is measured? Humidity is measured by means of a hygrometer. There are different types of hygrometers. The most common hygrometers are Wet- and Dry- Bulb Psychrometer and Hair Hygrometer. Relative Humidity


76 Wind is the movement of air from a location of high pressure to a location of low pressure as pressure equalizes. Wind is described in terms of its direction and speed. Wind vanes are used to indicate wind direction. Wind vanes point into the wind, meaning they point in the direction from which the wind is coming. Winds are named for the direction from which they are coming. Anemometers measure wind speed. Wind speed is reported in kilometers or miles per hour (km/h or mph), or in centimeters or meters per second (cm/s or m/s).

77 Mechanisms of heat transfer

78 High humidity of air sharply decreases heat loss by perspiration. Heat loss by conduction first of all depends on temperature of subjects contacting with body, and by convection (circulation) - also on speed of air moving.

79 Heat loss by convection is proportional to square root of speed of air moving (√V). In air temperature 33°C heat loss by convection stops, and in further increase of temperature body heating takes place. If temperature of environment is equal to body temperature heat loss by conduction and radiation stops. Thus, in conditions of high temperature and humidity in absence of air moving adaptive possibilities of thermoregulation are sharply narrowed and tensed.


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