Presentation on theme: "Mutations 12-4. Mutation Now and then cells make mistakes in copying their own DNA They can insert an incorrect base or skip a base as the new strand."— Presentation transcript:
Mutation Now and then cells make mistakes in copying their own DNA They can insert an incorrect base or skip a base as the new strand is put together. Mistakes are called mutationsmutations
Mutation Latin word meaning “to change.” Mutations are changes in the genetic material. There are 2 types of mutations: gene and chromosomal
Gene Mutations Gene mutations involving changes in one or a few nucleotides are known as point mutations point mutations Include: substitutions Insertions Deletions
If a nucleotide is added or deleted, groupings are shifted for every codon that follows Changes like these are called frameshift mutationsframeshift mutations Shifts reading frame of genetic message May change every amino acid that follows mutation
Chromosomal Mutations Chromosomal mutations involve changes in the number or structure of chromosomes They may change the locations of genes on chromosomes, and may even change the number of copies of some genes.
Deletions – loss of all or part of a chromosome Duplications – extra copies of parts of a chromosome Inversions – reverse direction of parts of chromosomes Translocations – part of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to another
Significance of Mutations Many mutations are neutral having little or no effect. Mutations that cause major changes in proteins are often harmful producing defective proteins that disrupt normal biological activities.
Significance of Mutations Mutations are also the source of genetic variability in a species. Some of this variation may be highly beneficial.
Harmful mutations are the causes of many genetic disorders Harmful mutations are also associated with many types of cancer. Beneficial mutations may produce proteins with new or altered activities can be useful to organisms in different or changing environments.
Polyploidy Plant and animal breeders often take advantage of beneficial mutations. when a complete set of chromosomes fails to separate during meiosis, the gametes that result may produce triploid (3N) or tetraploid (4N) organisms. The condition in which an organism has extra sets of chromosomes is called polyploidy.polyploidy
Polyploidy Polyploid plants are often larger and stronger than diploid plants. Important crop plants have been produced in this way, including bananas and many citrus fruits.